|Historical Firing Temperature
|Modern Firing Temperature
|China (5000 BC – 2500 BC)
|Geometric designs in black, red, and yellow on reddish-brown clay, simple shapes, use of bone tools for decoration
|800°C – 900°C
|900°C – 1100°C
Yangshao pottery, an integral part of the Yangshao culture, stands out as a significant representation of Neolithic art and craftsmanship in China. The Yangshao culture, dating back to approximately 5000-3000 BC, was predominantly concentrated along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, including regions like western Henan, Shaanxi, southwest Shanxi, central Hebei, upper Hanshui River, Taohe River Basin in Gansu, and the Hetao region in Inner Mongolia.
Characteristics and Craftsmanship
- Material and Design:
- Yangshao pottery is renowned for its painted pottery, featuring fine white, red, and black designs. The artisans of this culture created intricate human facial, animal, and geometric designs on their pottery. Notably, they did not use pottery wheels in their creation process, distinguishing them from later cultures like the Longshan.
- Variety and Techniques:
- The culture produced a wide range of pottery shapes, including urns, basins, tripod containers, bottles of various shapes, and jars, many with decorative covers or accessories shaped like animals. They also made complex, purely ornamental designs, such as boat shapes.
- The pottery was formed by stacking coils of clay into the desired shape and then smoothing the surfaces with paddles and scrapers. Full-bodied funerary storage jars, a common form, were made by the coiling or ring method.
- Cultural and Social Significance:
- The culture’s social structure is a topic of debate, with some early reports suggesting a matriarchal society, while others argue for a transition from matriarchy to patriarchy or a patriarchal system. This debate often centers around interpretations of burial practices.
- Archaeological Sites:
- Culture sites such as Banpo near Xi’an and Jiangzhai were significant archaeological discoveries. These sites provided insights into the culture’s pottery making, as well as their social and residential structures.
- Production Process:
- The pottery-making process involved selecting and refining raw materials like clay and red soil, forming billets by hand or using slow-wheel techniques, and then painting and decorating with natural mineral pigments. The pottery was then kiln-fired, using either vertical or horizontal cave kilns.
- Discovery and Legacy:
- The discovery of the Yangshao Cultural Site in Yangshao Village, Mianchi County, Sanmenxia City, Henan Province, was a significant archaeological milestone. This site and others have revealed layers of cultural strata, offering a window into China’s ancient past.
Yangshao pottery, with its elaborate designs and innovative techniques, reflects the advanced cultural development of the Yangshao people. It stands as a testament to the artistic capabilities and societal complexity of Neolithic China, contributing significantly to the understanding of early Chinese civilization.