Pottery Trimming Techniques Mastering Clay Contours

After reading my article you will have the knowledge of masters. The next step after reading will be for you to practice what you have learned. I have compiled a lot of information into this article. It’s jam packed with my tips and techniques that I have learned over the years. The best way to read this article is to bookmark it and come back to it later, reading sections at a time.

Pottery Trimming Techniques delve into the nuanced world of refining and detailing pottery post-wheel work. Trimming Techniques offer a sculptor’s touch, transforming a simple pot into a work of art with added depth and elegance in pottery. The beauty of a finished piece often lies hidden in the mastery of Pottery Trimming Techniques.


  1. Choose the Right Pottery Trimming Tool – Select a sharp trimming tool that feels comfortable in your hand.
  2. Secure the Pottery – Center and attach your leather-hard pot on the wheel, upside down, you can use wads of clay to secure it.
  3. Check Thickness of your Pottery – Tap on the base of the pot. A deeper sound indicates thicker clay.
  4. Start Slow – Begin the wheel’s rotation at a slow speed.
  5. Hold Tool Steadily – With your elbows anchored, hold the trimming tool firmly.
  6. Trim the Outer Edge – Begin trimming from the outer edge moving inwards.
  7. Establish Pottery Base Thickness – Remove the desired amount from the base without making it too thin.
  8. Smoothing Out Pottery – Use a flexible metal rib or soft plastic rib to smooth the trimmed surfaces.
  9. Add Foot or Design – Create a foot ring or any design elements you want on the base.
  10. Final Pottery Inspection – Rotate the pot by hand, ensuring evenness and desired shape.
  11. Clean Up – Remove the clay attachments and brush off any trimmings.

1 Choose The Right Tool

I always say tools are truly are a potter’s best companions. Much like how a chef’s art begins with the perfect knife, the essence of a potter’s touch often hinges on the tool in hand. When it comes to trimming pottery, it’s not just about having any tool; it’s about having the perfect one, right?

  1. Purpose of the Tool – Trimming tools are designed to pare away excess clay, refine shapes, and add definition to the underside of pots. Their sharpness allows for precision, ensuring clay is removed without harming the piece.
  2. Variety – There’s a vast array of trimming tools, each with its unique design. From looped tools for removing larger clay sections to slender, pointed ones for intricate work. Some have curves, catering to rounded pots, while others are straighter, ideal for more angular designs.
  3. Comfort – This might seem trivial, but in pottery, comfort is paramount. Spending hours at the wheel demands a tool that feels like a natural extension of your hand, ensuring a grip that’s neither too tight nor too flimsy.
  4. Material & Craftsmanship – The best tools boast of superior quality. While most trimming tools are crafted from metal, their quality can differ. Superior tools maintain their sharpness, resist rust, and some even come with replaceable blades, offering prolonged usability.
  5. Maintenance – All great tools, despite their resilience, demand care. Regular cleaning and occasional sharpening ensure they’re always in top form. Some potters even modify their tools, tweaking angles or handles for their specific needs.

While it might seem like a simple tool choice, the right trimming tool significantly impacts the final piece, the trimming efficiency, and the potter’s overall experience. My experience says the next time you find yourself at the wheel, remember to kick things off by selecting the right tool. How you’re on the path to pottery perfection.

2 Secure the Pottery

There’s an art to securing the pottery. I say it’s like setting the foundation of a house, if it’s even a smidgen off, your entire structure could tilt.

  1. The Importance – Stability reigns supreme when trimming pottery. If the piece isn’t anchored just right, you might face wobbles, uneven trims, or worse, your work could catapult off the wheel.
  2. Preparation is Key – The pottery should be leather-hard. This means the clay is damp enough for work but firm to maintain its shape. Too wet? It’ll deform. Too dry? Potential cracks.
  3. Using Clay Wads – These little anchors, or moist balls of clay, hold your piece in place. Place them evenly around the base of your pottery for optimal grip.
  4. Centering the Piece – After placing your pottery upside-down on the wheel, spin it. You want to fix any wobbles, adjusting by applying light pressure until it’s centered.
  5. Checking the Grip – Give your piece a gentle tap and nudge. It should stand firm. Any movement means you need to re-center or beef up your clay wads.

3 Check Thickness of Your Pottery

Imagine you’ve crafted a beautiful pot, only to realize it’s too heavy or, worse, so thin it can’t hold its contents. The thickness of a piece speaks volumes, both in terms of function and aesthetics.

  1. Listening In – This might sound strange, but one of the best ways to gauge thickness is by tapping on the base of your pot. A deeper, duller sound suggests a thicker clay, while a higher pitch indicates thinness. It’s almost as if your pottery is singing its story to you. Or, just do what I do and look at it, ha!
  2. Why It Matters – The thickness will determine a lot about the final product: its weight, durability, and even how it feels in the hands of the user. A teapot, for instance, shouldn’t be too heavy, or it’ll be cumbersome to pour from.
  3. The Balance Game – Too thick, and the pottery might end up being bulkier and heavier than necessary. Too thin, and the piece might become fragile, risking breakage. Striking the right balance is essential.
  4. Using Calipers – For those who want a more precise measurement, calipers come to the rescue. This tool can give you an accurate read on the thickness of the wall, ensuring consistency. Again, I just look at it, ha! Yea, with experience you can tell easily.
  5. Guidance for Beginners – New to pottery? Stick to a general thickness until you get a feel for it. As you gain experience, you’ll develop an innate sense for how thick or thin you want your piece.

4 Start Slow

Engaging in the art of pottery, especially when you’re at the wheel, is almost like a dance. The rhythm and pace are crucial, and just like a good dance, it often starts with a slow, measured tempo.

  1. Understanding the Rotation – The wheel’s speed determines the control you have over the trimming. Starting slow allows you to gauge the rotation and understand how your tool interacts with the clay at various speeds.
  2. Minimizing Mistakes – A rapid rotation might cause the tool to catch or dig too deeply, leading to gouges or even breaking the pottery. A slower speed, especially for beginners, offers more control and minimizes the chance of these missteps.
  3. Safety First – Faster wheel speeds can fling clay trimmings or even the tool itself. A slow start ensures a safer environment, reducing the risk of flying debris or accidents.
  4. Fine-tuning the Details – Precise details and smooth finishes are often achieved at slower speeds. Think of it like fine-tuning a musical instrument – the meticulous adjustments are what lead to perfection.
  5. Build as You Go – As you gain confidence and understand the feel of the clay, gradually increasing the wheel’s speed can be beneficial. This way, you’re adapting in real-time, honing your technique with each rotation.

5 Hold Tool Steadily

Crafting pottery is a delicate balance between force and finesse. How you hold and manipulate your trimming tools greatly influences the outcome of your work.

My tool story: While trimming a plate one day, I found myself armed with an old kitchen knife, trying to meticulously pare away excess clay from the plate’s edges. I’d painstakingly shaped this plate to a perfect circle, pouring my time and heart into every curve. Achieving that flawless roundness is a testament to a potter’s eye for detail. But here’s the twist: a riveting football game was on, and I thought, “Why not multitask?” With a surge of confidence, I believed I could juggle both tasks. But a distraction took hold. In a fleeting moment, the knife slipped, slicing through the soft clay with unexpected ease. That day, I was handed a lesson in focus, one I won’t forget anytime soon!

  1. Importance of Stability – A steady hand ensures uniform trimming. Any unintentional jitters or shakes can lead to uneven surfaces or unwanted gouges in the clay. It’s like trying to write with a shaky pen; the results are unpredictable.
  2. Anchoring Techniques – Many potters anchor their elbows against their body or the edge of the wheel table. This stance provides a solid base, allowing for more precise and controlled movements of the hands.
  3. Tool Grip – Just like holding a pencil, there are different grips for pottery tools. The key is to find a grip that offers control without causing hand fatigue. A relaxed but firm grip usually does the trick.
  4. Understanding Pressure – Holding the tool steadily doesn’t mean applying excessive pressure. It’s about consistency. Too much pressure can dig into the clay, while too little might just skim the surface. With practice, you’ll find the ‘Goldilocks’ zone of just the right pressure.
  5. Tool Angle – The angle at which you hold the tool relative to the pot plays a vital role. A steeper angle is more aggressive, removing more clay, while a shallower angle offers finer, controlled trims.
  6. Responding to Feedback – As you trim, the clay will offer feedback. If you feel resistance or the tool getting stuck, it’s essential to remain steady and make minor adjustments. This feedback loop between the hands, tool, and clay is the heart of the trimming process.

6 Trimming the Outer Edge

The initial step that sets the stage for the rest of your pottery piece. It’s like that first brushstroke on a blank canvas, but in the realm of pottery.

When you trim the outer edge, you’re essentially defining the piece’s footprint, giving it its foundation. So, how do you go about it? First and foremost, always make sure your pot is leather-hard. Too wet, and the clay will smudge; too dry, and you risk chipping or cracking.

  1. Start with your tool at an angle against the edge. A slight tilt ensures a smoother cut and less drag on the clay. The motion should be smooth and consistent, guided by your hands and not just by the tool’s movement. As you engage with the clay, the tool should glide, almost dancing along the edge.
  2. While trimming, always keep an eye on the depth. You don’t want to trim too deeply, risking the piece’s integrity. It’s always better to make multiple light passes than one deep, aggressive one.
  3. Remember, the outer edge serves as a visual and functional border. It needs to be neat and evenly trimmed, ensuring a stable base if your pot is to stand and an aesthetic balance that appeals to the eye.

Trimming might seem like a small step in the vast pottery making process, but it’s fundamental. Like in any craft, the devil’s in the details, and with pottery, the outer edge is one such detail that demands your attention. I say, it’s not just about shaping clay but crafting a piece of art.

7 Establish Pottery Base Thickness

One of the finer aspects of pottery trimming. The base thickness might seem like a minute detail, but it’s critical in determining the piece’s stability, weight, and functionality.

Determining the right thickness for your pottery’s base is like I mentioned above, like setting the foundation of a building. Too thin, and the pottery might crack during firing or even break with minimal force. Too thick, and the piece might be unnecessarily heavy or take too long to dry and fire.

To establish the desired base thickness, it’s essential first to have a clear vision of the piece’s purpose. A decorative item might allow for a thinner base, while a functional piece like a mug or bowl requires a thicker, sturdier base.

When trimming, use your tool to gently scrape away the clay, always ensuring you maintain an even pressure. As you remove layers, occasionally pause to tap the base and gauge its thickness. The sound will change as the base becomes thinner. A higher-pitched tap typically indicates a thinner section, while a deeper tone suggests more thickness. Or just do what I do and pay close attention to the thickness.

And remember, as with many aspects of pottery, practice will fine-tune your skills. Practice makes perfect, right? Over time, you’ll get a better understanding of how thick your base should be relative to the size and purpose of your pottery piece.

8 Smoothing Out Pottery

The art of achieving that silky finish on pottery! After you’ve done the bulk of the trimming and have removed the excess clay, the next step is to ensure your piece feels as good as it looks. Let me take you through the steps of the ‘smooth out‘ process.

Smoothing out isn’t just for aesthetics, though that’s a big part of it. A smooth surface reduces the chances of cracks forming during drying and firing, and it’s more pleasant to the touch, especially for functional pieces like mugs or bowls.

Start by choosing the right tool for the task. While trimming tools are great for removing clay, softer tools, such as flexible metal ribs or soft plastic ribs, are ideal for this stage. These tools conform to the shape of your piece and allow for gentle yet effective smoothing.

As you press the rib against the spinning pottery, it’ll catch and compress any grooves, ridges, or marks left from the trimming. You want to hold it firmly but gently, moving it along the contours of your pottery. This will also burnish the clay to a slight sheen, giving it a polished look even before glazing.

For areas that are tricky to reach with a rib, a damp sponge can be your best ally. Gently rub it over the pottery’s surface, making sure not to add too much moisture. The sponge helps to erase small imperfections and provides a slightly textured, organic finish.

It’s important to ensure your piece is leather-hard at this stage. If the clay is too wet, you risk distorting your piece. If it’s too dry, you might not achieve the desired smoothness.

Remember, the goal is to refine your piece, enhancing its tactile qualities. Once you’ve mastered the smooth out technique, your pottery won’t just be a feast for the eyes, but a delight to the touch, no sharp edges. So, take your time, be gentle, and let the clay guide you. In my experience, the difference between a good piece and a great piece often lies in the subtle, smooth details.

9 Add Foot or Design

After diving into the realm of pottery, I quickly realized that the base of the piece can be just as expressive as its body. Adding a foot or integrating design elements at the base isn’t just a functional decision; it’s an artistic one that can elevate the entire piece.

The foot of a piece of pottery, especially for bowls or vases, gives it a lifted appearance, creating a shadow and adding dimension. This subtle elevation can make a piece feel lighter, more elegant, and can define its stance. The type of foot you choose, be it a wide, broad foot or a narrow, delicate one, can change the entire demeanor of your piece.

When you’re adding a foot, you’re essentially creating a small ring of clay at the base. The first step is to determine the size and shape of the foot. Using a trimming tool, carve away the excess clay, sculpting it into your desired form. As you trim, it’s essential to maintain symmetry, ensuring the foot is even and balanced. Otherwise, your pottery might wobble or tilt.

Now, if you’re feeling adventurous and want to infuse more personality into your piece, this stage is prime time for design! Whether you want to carve intricate patterns, press stamps, or even inscribe a personal message, the base offers a canvas for additional creativity. Some artists like to leave their signature or mark at the bottom, creating a personal touch.

However, it’s crucial to be mindful of depth when carving designs. If you carve too deeply, you risk weakening the base. Always remember to smoothen any sharp or rough edges after carving; this ensures the piece is safe to handle and doesn’t scratch surfaces it’s placed on. I always make sure the base is smooth and sometime will add felt tot he bottom of the pottery, depending on its use.

My Tip: In the vast world of pottery, in my experience, the base is often overlooked, but it’s truly where your piece stands. Whether you opt for a simple, clean foot or an elaborate design, remember it’s a reflection of your artistic voice. As the saying goes, it’s the little details that make a big difference. So, don’t be afraid to put your best foot forward and make that base shine! Sorry I could not resist the temptation to use that word, ha!

10 Final Inspection

This is the moment of truth in pottery, where you stand back, rotate that piece in your hands, and take in all its beauty, ensuring that it meets your vision. Just don’t drop it like have have sone so many times, ha! The final inspection is that crucial checkpoint before you deem your work ready for the next phase, be it drying, bisque firing, or glazing.

Here’s the deal, no matter how meticulous you’ve been throughout the process, there might be some elements that need a second look. As you rotate the piece manually, you’re searching for evenness, symmetry, and any potential imperfections. You’re not just looking, you’re also feeling. Run your fingers gently over the surface can detect tiny bumps, grooves, or inconsistencies in texture that the eyes might miss.

Checking the base is vital too. Does it sit flat on a surface without wobbling? If you’ve added a foot, is it even and proportional to the body of the piece? Also, ensure that any carved or added designs are clean and well-defined.

Don’t forget the inside! For items like bowls or vases, ensure the inner surface is as smooth and well-finished as the outer one. For hollow pieces, listen for any trapped air bubbles by tapping lightly; they can cause cracks during firing.

Then there’s the matter of thickness. Too thin, and the piece might break during firing. Too thick, and it may not dry or fire evenly. A quick, careful measure or even a feel can help gauge this.

The final inspection is also a time of reflection. Does the piece resonate with your original vision? Sometimes, during this contemplative moment, you might decide to make a few last-minute tweaks, and that’s okay. Pottery is a dialogue between the artist and the clay. It’s a dance, a back-and-forth until both agree on the final form.

So, when you’re at the final inspection stage, embrace it. It’s your last quality check, your final seal of approval. Then put your name on it!

11 Clean Up

Now the fun starts, ha! Let’s face it, as therapeutic and fun as pottery can be, it sure knows how to make a mess! But tidying up after a pottery session isn’t just about aesthetics; it’s also about maintaining the longevity of your tools, ensuring the safety and hygiene of your workspace, and setting yourself up for success the next time you dive into creation.

First things first, let’s talk tools. After trimming and other pottery work, your tools likely have clay residue on them. Over time, if this clay dries and builds up, it can affect the tool’s performance. Therefore, it’s essential to rinse them thoroughly, ensuring every nook and cranny is free from clay. Dry them well, too, as moisture left on tools can lead to rust, especially for metal ones.

Then there’s the wheel. Clay splatters, fingerprints, and little blobs can end up everywhere. A clean wheel not only looks better but functions more efficiently. Wipe down every part of it, paying close attention to areas where clay tends to accumulate. Also, don’t forget the splash pan if your wheel has one.

The trimming scraps and clay trimmings need attention too. While it might be tempting to just sweep them into the bin, remember that clay can be reclaimed. Store your scraps in a container with a bit of water. Once you have enough, you can recycle this clay, saving both resources and money.

The workspace surface, whether it’s a table or counter, should be wiped down to remove any clay particles. This reduces the risk of dust, which, when inhaled, can be harmful. And if you’re using shared facilities, cleaning up is a courtesy to the next artist who will use the space.

Lastly, let’s not forget the floor. Those little bits that find their way to the ground can be a slipping hazard when wet. Sweep up, and if necessary, give the floor a quick mop.

So, while the act of cleaning might not be as glamorous as the act of creating, it’s an integral part of the pottery process. It ensures that every time you approach your wheel or workbench, you’re starting with a blank slate, ready for the next masterpiece.

What pottery trimming tools are used to finish Native American Pottery?

Native American pottery, known for its elegance, intricate design, and craftsmanship, has a rich history. When it comes to trimming and finishing, traditional Native American pottery differs significantly from modern studio pottery. Historically, Native American potters have relied on simple, often natural, tools to perfect their creations. Here are some of the traditional tools and materials they might have used:

  1. Gourds and Shells – Parts of dried gourds or shells were often used to scrape and smooth the surface of a piece. This helps in refining the form and ensuring the walls of the pottery are even.
  2. Stones – Smooth stones of various sizes were employed to burnish or polish the surface of the pot, giving it a shiny finish. Burnishing compresses the clay particles and makes the pot more watertight. This step is particularly important if the pottery isn’t glazed.
  3. Wooden Paddles – These could be used to shape, smooth, and even decorate pottery. They might be plain or carved with patterns.
  4. Brushes – Made from yucca or other plant fibers, brushes were employed to apply slips (thin clay washes) or pigments to the pottery.
  5. Bone or Antler Tools – These could be used for carving or incising designs into the pot’s surface.
  6. Fingers – Never underestimate the tools at the tip of your hands! Fingers were (and still are) instrumental in pinching, shaping, and smoothing clay.
  7. Natural Pigments -Minerals like iron oxide (for red) or plant-derived pigments might be used to paint designs onto the pottery.
  8. Clay Slips – These are thin mixtures of clay and water applied to the surface of pottery, often to change its color or to help in decoration.

It’s worth noting that while many traditional potters might still use these techniques, others have incorporated more modern tools into their process.

When should leather hard clay be softened before starting to trim smaller pots?

Trimming a pot is an essential step to refine its shape, remove excess clay, and add specific design elements. Working with leather-hard clay is often preferred because it holds its shape while allowing modifications. When it comes to smaller pots, the process and timing remain crucial.

If a small pot becomes too hard (past leather-hard), it can be challenging to trim, and the tool might not glide smoothly. However, if it’s too wet, the pot might deform or lose its shape when you apply pressure.

So, when should leather-hard clay be softened before starting to trim smaller pots?

  1. Observe the Clay – Touch the pot. It should feel cool but not damp. Your finger shouldn’t leave a mark but should feel a slight resistance.
  2. Listen to the Sound – When tapped, leather-hard clay produces a sound different from wet clay. It’s more of a dull “thud” rather than a “squish.”
  3. Check the Consistency – You want to make sure it’s firm enough to hold its shape but soft enough to trim without excessive force.

If you find the clay is too hard:

  • Lightly Dampen – Use a spray bottle to mist the surface of the pot. Cover it with plastic and let it sit for some hours. The moisture will even out throughout the pot, softening it slightly. Remember, too much water can make it revert to its wetter stage, so use this method sparingly.
  • Moist Environment – Place the pot in a humid environment, like a damp box or a sealed plastic bag with a damp cloth. This can help to reintroduce some moisture without direct contact.

My Pro Tip: The key is to monitor the pot’s hardness and adapt accordingly. It’s always easier to add a bit of moisture than to deal with a pot that’s too wet. And with small pots, due to their size, they might dry faster than larger ones, so it’s essential to keep an eye on them and adjust the environment if necessary.

Does the type of clay body affect the way you should approach the pottery trimming process?

The one question many do not ask but is vital!!!! What a great question. The unique characteristics of different clay bodies can affect not just how the clay behaves during trimming, but also how one should approach the entire process. Let me break it down for you:

  1. Porcelain – Delicate, smooth, and often a bit more finicky, porcelain requires a gentle touch. It doesn’t have the gritty texture of stoneware, which can make it slippery when wet and potentially a bit trickier to trim. When trimming porcelain, you want your tools to be razor-sharp to achieve clean cuts and to avoid catching or tearing the clay.
  2. Stoneware – This is a more robust and forgiving clay body. It often contains grog (pre-fired ceramic material) that can provide some texture, aiding the trimming process. Stoneware is less likely to chip during trimming than porcelain.
  3. Earthenware – Being softer and more porous than stoneware or porcelain, earthenware can be a joy to trim. However, due to its softer nature, it can also be prone to warping if not handled with care. It’s crucial to ensure the clay is leather-hard and not too soft when trimming.
  4. Raku Clay – Often groggy and coarse, Raku clay is designed for the unique thermal stresses of Raku firing. The rough texture can provide good tactile feedback when trimming, but the large particles can also be abrasive on trimming tools.
  5. Sculpture Clays – These are usually more grogged and might be less smooth, making them ideal for sculpture but a bit challenging to trim neatly. However, the added grog can offer structural strength, especially when carving or trimming larger, sculptural pieces.

When you’re working with a particular clay body, it’s essential to adjust your trimming techniques accordingly:

  • Pressure – Harder, grittier clays might require more pressure, while softer clays like porcelain would need a gentler touch.
  • Tool Sharpness – sharp tool is always helpful, but it becomes paramount with smoother clays like porcelain to prevent dragging or tearing.
  • Drying Time – Some clay bodies dry faster than others. You’ll need to monitor the drying process to ensure your piece is at the perfect leather-hard stage for trimming.

Understanding the characteristics of your chosen clay body can profoundly influence the outcomes of your trimming process. So, yes, the type of clay definitely affects how you should approach trimming!

Are there any tips for smoothing out uneven surfaces on freshly trimmed clay pieces?

Here is my list of tools to give you that smooth look and feel.

  1. Rubber or Metal Ribs – These tools are superb for compressing and smoothing the clay. Bendable rubber ribs conform to your pottery’s shape, ensuring a seamless glide.
  2. Chamois or Soft Cloth – Dampen a bit of chamois or a soft cloth to refine the edges and rims of your pottery.
  3. Soft Brushes & Water – Using a soft brush dipped in minimal water helps to erase minor imperfections. The water acts as a gentle lubricant to wipe away unwanted marks. Just remember, a little goes a long way.
  4. Burnishing – By using a smooth stone, the back of a spoon, or a specialized burnishing tool, you can polish your pottery’s surface to a glossy finish. It’s especially handy for pieces that won’t be glazed.
  5. Surform Tool – Resembling a cheese grater, this tool is a champion in reducing high spots on larger items.
  6. Finger Smooth – Your fingers, with a touch of water, can work wonders, especially in those hard-to-reach places. This is what I use the most, ha! And it’s free!
  7. Sponging – A sponge, dampened just a tad, can be gently used to rectify minor blemishes. But use sparingly, as too much can weaken your clay.
  8. Slip – This creamy blend of clay and water can fill in those pesky cracks. Smooth it out with your fingers or a rib after applying.
  9. Trimming When Leather-Hard – Aim to trim and refine your pottery when it’s leather-hard. This state, where it’s dried but still malleable, is prime for adjustments.
  10. Multiple Inspections – Keep spinning your pottery on the wheel, examining it from all angles. Sometimes, your fingers can sense what your eyes might miss.
  11. Letting it Rest – If a section is proving tricky, move on and return later. Fresh eyes can often spot a new approach.

My Pro Tip: While achieving that flawless finish is a noble goal, those tiny imperfections can be what gives your pottery its unique charm. Sometimes, it’s the quirks that truly make a piece stand out!


The Encyclopedia of Pottery Techniques: A Unique Visual Directory of Pottery Techniques, with Guidance on How to Use Them. Cosentino, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Pottery Techniques: A Unique Visual Directory of Pottery Techniques, with Guidance on How to Use Them. SearchPress+ ORM, 2018.

The Potter’s Bible: An Essential Illustrated Reference for both Beginner and Advanced Potters by Marylin Scott. Scott, Marylin. The Potter’s Bible: An Essential Illustrated Reference for Both Beginner and Advanced Potters. Quarto Publishing Group USA, 2006.

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