Terra sigillata is a fine-grained clay slip used in pottery to create a smooth, polished surface on ceramic ware. The name comes from the Latin “terra” (earth) & “sigillata” (sealed), referencing its ability to create a sealed surface. It is made by separating the fine particles of clay from coarser ones through a process of settling & decanting, resulting in a smooth, velvety texture.
|600 BCE||The earliest use of terra sigillata as a medicinal clay from the island of Lemnos|
|50 BCE – 50 CE||Arretine ware is produced in Italy|
|1st century CE||Terra sigillata production spreads to Gaul and other parts of the Roman Empire|
|2nd century CE||African Red Slip ware is produced in North Africa|
|3rd – 4th century CE||Terra sigillata production declines|
|15th – 16th century||Interest in terra sigillata is renewed during the Renaissance|
|19th century||Andreas Berthold sells Silesian terra sigillata as a panacea|
|20th century||Terra sigillata continues to be used by contemporary potters and ceramicists|
Uncovering the Secrets of Terra Sigillata: The Ancient Art of Ceramic Surface Decoration
Terra sigillata is a type of fine clay slip that has been used for thousands of years in ceramic arts. The name “terra sigillata” is derived from Latin, meaning “sealed earth,” and it was originally used in ancient Roman pottery. The slip is made from a refined mixture of clay, water, and sometimes other ingredients, such as grog or sand. It is applied to the surface of ceramics in thin layers and polished to a high sheen. This technique creates a lustrous, smooth surface that enhances the natural color and texture of the underlying clay. In modern ceramics, terra sigillata is often used to create a satin or gloss finish on functional or decorative pieces.
Terra sigillata and the Roman Empire
Roman red gloss terra sigillata bowl with relief decoration
Terra sigillata has an important place in archaeological history as a type of tableware made in Italy and Gaul during the Roman Empire. It was known for its smooth surface and intricate decorations, and was produced using a technique that involved refining clay and applying a fine slip to the surface. Terra sigillata was often stamped with makers’ marks, and its popularity spread throughout the Roman Empire. Today, the term “terra sigillata” is also used to describe a type of fine clay slip used as a surface treatment in contemporary ceramics. While the modern and historical versions of terra sigillata are distinct, they share a focus on creating a smooth, refined surface for decorative or functional purposes.
What are the different types of terra sigillata?
Terra sigillata can be made from different types of clays, each with its own unique characteristics. Some of the common types of terra sigillata include red earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware. Each type of clay has different properties that affect the final product, such as color, texture, and hardness. Additionally, terra sigillata can be further classified based on the additives used, such as mica, sand, or other minerals, which can affect the finish and appearance of the final product. Understanding the different types of terra sigillata can help artists choose the best option for their specific needs and desired outcome.
What are the ingredients of terra sigillata, andw what are the properties of terra sigillata and how is it made?
Terra sigillata is a fine-grained slip that is made of clay and water, often mixed with other ingredients such as vinegar, alcohol, or gum arabic. It is applied to clay surfaces to give them a polished finish and enhance their color and texture. The name “terra sigillata” comes from the Latin for “sealed earth,” as the slip creates a sealed surface on the clay.
The properties of terra sigillata vary depending on the type and the recipe used. Some types are designed to be fired at lower temperatures and may have lower levels of clay, while others are designed for higher temperatures and may have higher levels of clay. Terra sigillata can be made from a variety of clays, including earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. The process of making terra sigillata involves mixing the clay and water, allowing it to settle, and then decanting off the top layer of liquid. This liquid is then filtered and sometimes mixed with other ingredients before being applied to the clay surface.
One of the main properties of terra sigillata is its ability to create a smooth, polished surface on the clay, which can enhance the color and texture of the piece. It can also help to fill in small surface imperfections and create a more uniform appearance. The slip can be applied to both wet and dry clay surfaces, and can be burnished to create a shiny, polished finish.
Another property of terra sigillata is its ability to resist moisture absorption, which can help to protect the clay surface from damage and discoloration. It can also provide a protective layer against other substances that might come into contact with the piece, such as oils, dirt, and other contaminants.
Gaulish manufacturing sites
South Gaulish Dragendorff 29, late 1st century AD
The Gaulish manufacturing sites where terra sigillata was produced have been extensively excavated and studied. They are primarily located in the eastern part of France and western Germany. The sites date back to the 1st century BCE and continued to produce terra sigillata until the 3rd century CE. The Gaulish terra sigillata was known for its high quality, rich red color, and fine decoration. The manufacturing process involved creating a clay paste that was shaped into vessels, then coated with a slip made of clay, water, and a fine quartz powder. The vessels were then fired in kilns at high temperatures to create the final product.
Terra sigillata is a type of plain and decorated tableware made in Italy and Gaul during the Roman Empire. The Italian workshops are known as Aretine ware from Arezzo, while the Gaulish factories are referred to as samian ware by English-speaking archaeologists. Both types of terra sigillata have been collected and admired since the Renaissance. The popularity of terra sigillata was due to its bright, glossy finish and the fact that it was relatively inexpensive compared to other luxury tablewares of the time. Today, terra sigillata continues to be used in ceramics as a surface treatment, providing a unique visual quality and depth to ceramic objects.
African red slip (ARS) wares
Late Roman African Red Slip dish, 4th century AD
African red slip (ARS) wares are a type of ceramic pottery that was produced in the Roman Empire, primarily in North Africa, between the 2nd and 7th centuries CE. These wares are known for their distinctive red color, which is achieved through the use of iron-rich clays. ARS wares were often decorated with intricate designs and motifs, and were highly valued and widely traded throughout the Roman Empire. Today, they are important artifacts for understanding the social, economic, and cultural history of the Roman Empire.
Medicinal clay from the island of Lemnos
The term “terra sigillata” originally referred to a medicinal clay from the island of Lemnos, which was used in ancient Greece and Rome. This clay was believed to have healing properties and was used to make tablets for medicinal purposes. Later, the term was used to describe a specific type of decorated pottery made in Italy and Gaul during the Roman Empire. Today, the term is commonly used to refer to a fine clay slip used in ceramic art to create a smooth, polished surface.
Andreas Berthold promoted Silesian terra sigillata as a panacea that was effective against every type of poison and several diseases, including the plague. Despite the lack of scientific evidence to support these claims, the clay was highly sought after and became a popular remedy during the 18th and 19th centuries. However, it is important to note that these claims have been discredited in modern times.
English ethnographer and translator Thomas Harriot played a significant role in the study of terra sigillata. In the late 16th century, Harriot traveled to what is now North Carolina and studied the Native American cultures there. He documented the use of locally sourced clays and their transformation into terra sigillata by the indigenous peoples. Harriot’s observations contributed to a greater understanding of the manufacturing process of terra sigillata and its widespread use beyond Europe.
How is terra sigillata applied to ceramics?
Terra sigillata beaker with barbotine decoration
Terra sigillata is typically applied to ceramics in a thin, even layer by brush or spray. The surface of the ceramic should be clean and free from any dust or debris before application. The terra sigillata can be applied to both greenware and bisqueware, but it is typically applied to bisqueware, which has been fired once and is now ready for glazing.
To apply terra sigillata, it is important to shake or stir the mixture well to ensure that the particles are evenly distributed. The terra sigillata should be applied in thin layers, allowing each layer to dry before applying the next. It is also important to ensure that the terra sigillata is applied evenly and without any bubbles or streaks.
After the terra sigillata has been applied, the piece can be polished with a soft cloth or burnished with a smooth tool to bring out a shine. The burnishing process compresses the particles in the terra sigillata, creating a smooth, glass-like surface.
It is important to note that terra sigillata is not a substitute for glaze and is typically used for decorative purposes or to create unique effects on the surface of the ceramic.
What are the benefits of using terra sigillata in ceramics?
Terra sigillata has several benefits when used in ceramics. Firstly, it can be used to create a smooth and polished surface on ceramics, which can be used to create a range of different finishes, such as matte or glossy. This can enhance the appearance of the ceramic piece and add depth to its surface. Additionally, terra sigillata can help to seal the surface of the clay, making it less porous and more resistant to water absorption. This can help to protect the ceramic piece from damage, such as cracking or discoloration. Moreover, terra sigillata can also act as a bonding agent between glazes and the ceramic surface, improving the adhesion of the glaze and preventing it from cracking or peeling off during firing. Finally, terra sigillata can be used to create unique surface textures and designs, as it can be applied in various thicknesses and can be manipulated in different ways.
How does terra sigillata differ from other types of surface treatments and what is the difference between terra sigillata and glaze?
Terra sigillata is a type of surface treatment for ceramics that differs from glaze in several ways. While glaze is made up of finely ground glass-forming materials, terra sigillata is made up of clay particles suspended in water. The name “terra sigillata” actually means “sealed earth” in Latin, and refers to the ancient Roman use of the technique to create a glossy, polished surface on red pottery.
Unlike glaze, which is typically applied in multiple coats and then fired at high temperatures to create a smooth, durable surface, terra sigillata is applied in thin layers and burnished to create a smooth, polished finish. Because terra sigillata is made up of clay particles, it has a more matte finish than glaze and is not as resistant to wear and tear.
One of the benefits of using terra sigillata is that it can enhance the natural beauty of the clay body, highlighting its texture and color. Terra sigillata is also more versatile than glaze in terms of color, as it can be tinted with oxides or stains to create a wide range of hues.
Another difference between terra sigillata and glaze is the firing temperature. While glaze is typically fired at high temperatures (above 1,000°C), terra sigillata is often fired at lower temperatures (around 800°C). This lower firing temperature means that terra sigillata is less likely to craze or crack than glaze, making it a good choice for delicate or intricate pieces.
Overall, terra sigillata is a unique surface treatment that offers a range of aesthetic and practical benefits. While it is not as durable as glaze, it can create a beautiful, tactile finish on ceramics and offers greater flexibility in terms of color and firing temperature.
Can terra sigillata be used on greenware or only bisque-fired pieces?
Terra sigillata can be used on both greenware and bisque-fired pieces, but the application process differs. On greenware, terra sigillata is usually applied in multiple thin coats while the clay is still moist and soft. On bisque-fired pieces, terra sigillata is typically applied as a single layer, after which the piece is refired at a lower temperature to achieve the desired surface texture and finish. Using terra sigillata on greenware can help to seal the surface and prevent warping or cracking during the drying and firing process, while applying it to bisque-fired pieces can create a unique surface texture and enhance the colors and patterns of glazes or other surface treatments.
What are some common techniques for using terra sigillata in ceramics?
Terra sigillata can be used in a variety of ways to enhance the surface of ceramics. One common technique is to apply the terra sigillata to the surface of the clay while it is still damp. The terra sigillata can be applied in several layers, allowing each layer to dry before applying the next. Another technique involves burnishing the surface of the clay with a smooth object, such as a spoon or a piece of plastic, after the terra sigillata has been applied. This creates a smooth, glossy surface on the clay.
Another popular technique is to use terra sigillata in combination with other decorative techniques, such as sgraffito or mishima. Sgraffito involves scratching through the surface of the terra sigillata to reveal the clay underneath, while mishima involves filling incised lines with colored slip or underglaze. The terra sigillata can also be used as a glaze-like coating on bisque-fired pieces, either on its own or in combination with other glazes.
Additionally, some potters use terra sigillata as a resist material, applying it to the surface of the clay before applying other glazes. The terra sigillata resists the glaze, creating areas of exposed clay that can add visual interest to the finished piece.
Can multiple layers of terra sigillata be applied to achieve a specific effect?
Multiple layers of terra sigillata can be applied to achieve a specific effect. Each layer can add depth and visual interest to the surface of the ceramic piece. Applying a thin layer of terra sigillata can create a smooth, velvety texture, while multiple layers can build up a thicker, more textured surface. Additionally, layering different colors of terra sigillata can create unique color combinations and patterns. It is important to allow each layer to dry completely before applying another layer to avoid cracking or flaking.
How is terra sigillata fired, and at what temperature?
Terra sigillata is fired at a low temperature, typically around 1650°F (900°C). It is important to fire terra sigillata slowly to prevent cracking and warping. The firing process can take several hours, depending on the thickness of the layer of terra sigillata and the size of the piece being fired. It is recommended to do a test firing with a small piece to determine the ideal firing time and temperature for your specific clay body and terra sigillata recipe. It is also important to note that terra sigillata is not a substitute for glaze and will not produce the same results as a glaze firing.
Are there any safety concerns when working with terra sigillata?
When working with terra sigillata, there are several safety concerns to keep in mind. Firstly, it is important to wear a mask and work in a well-ventilated area to avoid inhaling the fine particles that can be created when mixing the ingredients. Additionally, some of the ingredients used in terra sigillata, such as clay and feldspar, can be irritants or cause skin sensitization, so it is important to wear gloves and avoid prolonged contact with the skin. It is also important to properly label and store any leftover terra sigillata, as it can dry out and become a respiratory hazard if it becomes airborne. Finally, it is important to follow proper kiln firing procedures to avoid any potential hazards related to firing ceramics.
What are some popular brands of terra sigillata and where can it be purchased?
There are several popular brands of terra sigillata available in the market, including Amaco, Laguna, and Tucker’s. These brands offer a variety of colors and consistencies to suit different preferences and techniques. Terra sigillata can be purchased at ceramic supply stores, online retailers, and through the manufacturers’ websites. It is important to check the ingredients and firing instructions of each product to ensure compatibility with your specific clay body and firing temperature. Some manufacturers also provide technical support and resources for using their products.
Conclusion And Summary
Terra sigillata is a type of clay slip that has been used for thousands of years to create a smooth, polished surface on ceramics. It is made by separating the finest particles of clay from water, and it can be applied to both greenware and bisque-fired ceramics. Terra sigillata has unique properties that can enhance the appearance of ceramics, and it can be used to achieve a range of effects through various application techniques. However, it also has some safety concerns that should be taken into account, such as inhalation of fine particles. Popular brands of terra sigillata can be found at ceramic supply stores or online retailers.
An Arretine stamp used for impressing a mold
Arretine ware is a type of Roman pottery that was produced in the city of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy, between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE. It is known for its distinctive red-orange color and is considered to be one of the highest quality and most refined forms of Roman pottery. Arretine ware was produced using a potter’s wheel and was decorated with stamped or incised designs before being fired. It was widely exported throughout the Roman Empire and was highly prized by the wealthy and elite. Arretine ware is considered a forerunner to terra sigillata, which was produced in Gaul and other parts of the Roman Empire.
It is considered to be the forerunner to terra sigillata, as it is made from a similar fine-grained clay and features a glossy red slip. However, Arretine ware is typically decorated with relief designs rather than the incised or stamped designs found on terra sigillata.
Terra Sigillata: Contemporary Techniques by Rhonda Willers
The Ceramic Surface by Matthias Ostermann
Surface Decoration: Finishing Techniques by Anderson Turner
The Potter’s Dictionary of Materials and Techniques by Frank Hamer and Janet Hamer
Making Marks: Discovering the Ceramic Surface by Robin Hopper