Post firing refers to methods applied after the initial kiln cycle. Decorating pottery after it’s been fired opens up a world of possibilities, from cold paints to decals, ensuring a unique touch to each piece of pottery. Many artists are drawn to these methods due to the versatility and precision of post firing techniques of decorating pottery.
|Technique||Short Description||Additional Info|
|1 Cold paints and enamels||Paints applied after firing for vibrant details.||Not always food-safe; for decorative pieces only.|
|2 Ceramic decals||Transferred designs added post firing.||Requires a heat source (like an oven) to adhere properly.|
|3 Lusters and overglazes||Add sheen or metallic finishes.||Should be handled with care; potentially toxic before firing.|
|4 Gold or silver leaf application||Adds shiny metallic surfaces.||Not dishwasher safe; should be used on decorative items.|
|5 China painting||Layered mineral paints giving a detailed appearance.||Requires multiple firings; offers a watercolor-like finish.|
|6 Epoxy and resin inlays||Fill in carved details or cracks with colorful resins.||Not typically food safe; gives a glossy, polished look.|
|7 Stickers and adhesive embellishments||Adds designs via adhesive.||Temporary; great for events or short-term decoration.|
|8 Wax resist and dye techniques||Creates contrasting patterns.||Great for achieving textured or two-toned looks.|
|9 Mosaic application||Embeds tiles or glass post firing.||Requires adhesive and often grout.|
|10 Airbrushing with acrylics||Sprays detailed patterns or colors.||Best for decorative pieces; not always food-safe.|
1 Cold Paints and Enamels
What are they?
Cold paints and enamels refer to the application of paint or enamel on ceramic or pottery pieces after they have been fired. This means the application takes place at room temperature, hence the term “cold”.
Benefits of Using Cold Paints and Enamels
The primary advantage of using cold paints and enamels is the ability to achieve vivid, bright colors and intricate details. Since there’s no firing involved post-application, there’s no risk of the color changing or the design distorting under high heat. It allows for a lot of creativity.
Things to Keep in Mind
While cold paints and enamels can bring a pottery piece to life, there are some caveats. Most of these paints and enamels aren’t food safe. So, if you’re considering decorating a dish or mug, it’s vital to remember the painted area shouldn’t come into contact with food or drink.Additionally, because these paints and enamels haven’t been set with heat, they can be more susceptible to wear and tear. This means they might not be as durable as glazes or underglazes that have been fired. It’s a good idea to handle pieces decorated with cold paints and enamels with care.
When applying cold paints and enamels, always ensure the surface is clean and free from dust. Using a good quality brush can also make a difference in the final outcome. After painting, it’s recommended to let the piece dry thoroughly before handling. Some enthusiasts even prefer to seal their work with a clear sealant to provide an added layer of protection.
2 Ceramic Decals
What are Ceramic Decals?
Ceramic decals are essentially printed designs made from special ink which can be transferred onto a ceramic surface. Think of them as tattoos for your pottery! Once applied, they’re typically fired in a kiln, which makes the design fuse with the pottery and ensures longevity.
Advantages of Using Ceramic Decals
One of the coolest things about ceramic decals is the precision they offer. You can get extremely intricate and detailed designs, something that might be challenging to paint by hand. They’re also fantastic for reproducing the same design consistently, making them ideal for pottery businesses or when you’re looking to create a matching set.
Applying ceramic decals might seem a tad daunting, but it’s pretty straightforward. First, you’d immerse the decal in water to separate it from its backing paper. Once it’s soaked, you carefully slide it onto your pottery piece, smooth out any bubbles or wrinkles, and let it dry. After this, you’d fire the piece in a kiln to permanently set the decal.
A Few Points to Consider
It’s essential to pick the right kind of decal for your project. Some are meant for low-fire applications, while others are designed for high-fire. Matching the decal to your clay body and glaze is crucial for best results. Also, I think, while decals offer precision, they might limit the handcrafted feel of a piece. It’s a balance between artisanal charm and design precision.
3 Lusters and Overglazes
Dive into Lusters
Lusters are fascinating. They’re liquid solutions containing metallic compounds, which, when applied to a ceramic surface and fired, result in a shiny, often iridescent finish. It’s almost like giving your pottery a little touch of magic. The colors and sheen can range from gold and silver to mother-of-pearl and even rainbow.
Overglazes, on the other hand, are a type of decorative finish that you apply over an already glazed and fired piece. Imagine them as the final touch, the topcoat to your pottery’s nail polish. They can add another layer of color, texture, or sheen, enhancing the underlying design.
How Do You Apply Them?
With lusters, it’s all about the application. You usually brush them onto your already glazed and fired piece. But remember, they’re potent, so a thin layer is often all you need. After application, you’d fire your piece again at a relatively low temperature, and voilà – you’ve got yourself a shimmering masterpiece.For overglazes, it’s a similar process. Apply them over your glazed piece and fire again. The key is ensuring the overglaze is compatible with the initial glaze. You don’t want them reacting in unexpected ways during the firing process.
My Tips and Tricks
While lusters and overglazes can add incredible depth and beauty to your pottery, they require a bit of care. Firstly, ensure your work area is clean. Contaminants can alter the appearance of your lusters. Secondly, always read the manufacturer’s instructions. Different products might have unique application or firing recommendations.
4 Gold or Silver Leaf Application
A Bit of Background
Gold and silver leafing, often just referred to as gilding, is a technique that’s been around for ages. It’s the process of applying thin sheets of gold or silver to a surface, and in pottery, it can add an element of luxury and sophistication. Imagine sipping tea from a cup with a delicate gold rim. Feels regal, right?
The Process of Applying
When it comes to pottery, the application can be a bit meticulous. You start by ensuring the surface of your pottery piece is clean and free from dust or oil. Then, an adhesive, often called size, is applied to the areas you want the leaf to adhere to. Once the adhesive gets tacky (which could take anywhere from 15 minutes to a few hours), you carefully lay the leaf over it.
Working with the Leaf
Handling gold or silver leaf requires patience. These sheets are super thin and delicate, which means they can tear easily. Some people use specialized brushes or even their breath to gently maneuver the leaf into place. Once applied, you softly brush or tamp it down, adhering it to the pottery’s surface. Any excess is then brushed away.
Sealing the Deal
In my opinion after you’ve applied the leaf and are satisfied with how it looks, it’s crucial to seal it. A sealer helps protect the delicate metal leaf from wear and tear, especially if the pottery piece is something you’ll use often, like a bowl or a mug. The sealer also ensures the leaf won’t tarnish over time. In summary, the application of gold or silver leaf can elevate your pottery to a whole new level. While it might seem intimidating at first, with a bit of practice and patience, you can create pieces that truly shine. Whether it’s a touch of gold on a pendant or a full silver-coated vase, the results are always breathtaking.
5 China Painting
A Glimpse into Its Origin
China painting, also known as porcelain painting, has its roots in ancient China. It’s a delicate art form where you paint intricate designs directly onto glazed porcelain or ceramic items. The interesting part about China painting is that it doesn’t merge with the glaze during firing, but sits on top. This gives the artwork a lovely dimension and an almost ethereal quality.
The Artistic Process
The first step in China painting is to select a piece of glazed porcelain or ceramic. You’d then decide on a design in which could range from intricate landscapes to floral motifs or even detailed portraits. The paints used are oil-based, and they’re mixed with a medium to give them the right consistency. I’ve seen artists get lost in this process, their brushes dancing over the porcelain surface, bringing their visions to life.
One thing unique about China painting is that it typically requires multiple firings. After painting a layer, you’d fire the piece in a kiln to set the paint. Then, additional details or layers can be added, followed by another firing. This process is repeated until the desired depth and detail are achieved. Each firing can slightly change the color and texture of the paint, making the end result truly one-of-a-kind.
Preservation is Key
Given the delicate nature of the artwork, pieces that are China painted are generally used for decorative purposes rather than daily use. It’s also a good idea to avoid washing them in a dishwasher. A gentle hand wash will ensure the artwork remains pristine for years to come. I say, China painting is a mesmerizing art form, allowing artists to create breathtaking pieces with depth, detail, and a touch of history. It’s a testament to the blend of artistic creativity and technical precision.
6 Epoxy and Resin Inlays
What Are They, Exactly?
You know, epoxy and resin inlays have a certain magic about them. Essentially, they’re liquid compounds that can be poured into cracks, voids, or purposely designed spaces in pottery or other objects. Once they harden, they give the piece an enhanced, often contrasting, decorative effect. It’s like giving pottery a touch of modern bling!
The Process Behind the Beauty
The journey begins with mixing the resin, often a two-part solution of resin and a hardener. The mixture starts off clear, but here’s the fun part – you can introduce pigments or other materials like glitters, colored powders, or even thin slices of luminescent shells. The world’s your oyster, and the final result can range from subtle translucence to dynamic swirls of color.
Why Choose Epoxy or Resin?
Using epoxy or resin isn’t just about aesthetics. While they certainly elevate the visual appeal, they also strengthen the pottery. Think of those tiny, hairline cracks or imperfections. Filling them with epoxy or resin not only covers them up but also reinforces the piece. It’s a blend of form and function, if you ask me.
Precautions to Keep in Mind
My experience shows, as mesmerizing as the process sounds, it’s vital to approach it with caution. Ensure the workspace is well-ventilated because the fumes can be potent. Also, patience is key. The curing time can vary, but it’s often best to leave it undisturbed for at least 24 hours. And always remember, the end result is worth the wait. I believe, epoxy and resin inlays breathe new life into pottery, making each piece a unique artwork.
7 Stickers and Adhesive Embellishments
The Charm of Simplicity
Stickers and adhesive embellishments bring me back to those days of crafting as a kid. They’re straightforward, fun, and have the ability to transform a simple piece of pottery into something unique. They’re like the spontaneous jazz in the orchestrated world of pottery.
A Vast World to Dive Into
When we say stickers and adhesive embellishments, it isn’t just limited to the regular stickers we’re familiar with. There’s a wide range out there – from vinyl decals to three-dimensional gems, from metallic motifs to fabric patches. The variety available nowadays is simply mind-boggling. Depending on your mood or theme, you can choose an embellishment that speaks to you.
Applying Them Right
Now, if you’re going to jazz up your pottery with these, there’s a method to the madness. Firstly, ensure your pottery piece is clean. Dust and grease can prevent the stickers from adhering properly. Once you’ve chosen your spot, press the sticker or embellishment firmly to ensure it sticks well. For those looking for a more permanent solution, consider sealing it with a clear coat. This step ensures that the sticker won’t peel off and gives it an integrated look.
A Word of Caution
But here’s something to keep in mind. If your pottery piece is something you use frequently, like a mug or a plate, you might want to be careful with where you place these embellishments. You wouldn’t want them to come into contact with food or to get wet often.
The Hilarious Revenge of Classroom Sticker Wars!
When I was in the 6th grade, there was this unspoken competition among us classmates: who could pull off the best ‘Kick Me’ prank. We would craft our stickers with whatever school supplies we had, usually a sheet of notebook paper and some transparent tape. The simpler the materials, the more pride we took in our handiwork.
I remember Timmy, the class clown, being the undisputed champion. He was a master of distraction, always managing to place his sticker just so, without the victim having the slightest idea. The hallway would erupt in suppressed giggles and stifled laughs every time someone paraded by, unknowingly sporting one of Timmy’s infamous stickers.
But Jenny, the quiet girl who sat at the back, had had enough. One day, after being the victim of Timmy’s pranks one too many times, she decided to hatch a plan of her own. Instead of the usual notebook paper, she used a vibrant neon paper from art class, ensuring her sticker would stand out.
The next day, as Timmy was gloating about another successful prank, Jenny made her move. And, for the rest of the day, unbeknownst to Timmy, he became the star of the show. Everywhere he went, from the cafeteria to the library, bursts of laughter followed him. It wasn’t until gym class, when he had to change, that he discovered the neon ‘Kick Me’ on his back, much to the amusement of everyone present.
From that day on, the tables had turned. Jenny became the new sticker champion, and Timmy learned a valuable lesson: never underestimate the quiet ones. They might just surprise you with their crafty revenge!
8 Wax Resist and Dye Techniques
When I first delved into the world of pottery and textiles, I was utterly fascinated by the myriad of methods used to create those intricate patterns and designs. Among those, the “wax resist and dye techniques” stood out as one of the most mesmerizing processes.
The Basics of Wax Resist
The concept behind wax resist is quite simple. By applying wax to certain areas of a piece, be it pottery or fabric, those areas are essentially “protected” or “resisted” from subsequent layers of dye or glaze. Think of it like using a shield to keep certain parts of your artwork untouched.
The Charm of Dye Techniques
Once you’ve applied the wax, it’s time to introduce the dye. The beauty here is that the dye only affects the areas not covered by the wax. So, when you’re dyeing a fabric, for instance, the color seeps into the unprotected areas, creating a striking contrast between the wax-covered and the dyed sections.
Merging the Two Together
Bringing together wax resist and dye techniques allows for intricate patterns, swirls, and details that can be as simplistic or as complicated as you want them to be. The results can be so breathtaking, especially when you think about the precision required to ensure the wax is applied just right.
Unveiling the Magic
Now, here’s my favorite part. After the dye has been applied and set, the wax is removed, revealing the magic underneath. On pottery, this often involves another round of firing, whereas with textiles, the wax can be ironed out or boiled off. What remains is a piece of art with stunning contrasts, clear lines, and an intricate design that’s bound to turn heads.
It’s always fun to play around with wax resist and dye techniques. Each project becomes a new adventure, a mystery unfolding, as you never quite know how the end product will look until that wax is removed. The anticipation of the reveal, for me, is the highlight of the entire process.
9 Mosaic Application
Mosaics have always captured my imagination. There’s something so enchanting about creating a larger image or pattern from tiny, individual pieces.
The Essence of Mosaics
At its heart, a mosaic is an assembly of small pieces, often referred to as tesserae. These can be made of glass, ceramic, stone, or even other materials, all carefully placed together to form a unified design. What’s most captivating is how each tiny fragment, seemingly insignificant on its own, becomes part of a grander narrative.
The Method Behind the Magic
Creating a mosaic involves arranging these pieces on a surface, often following a design or template. Once the desired pattern is laid out, the next step is securing them in place. This is typically done using a specific type of adhesive suitable for the chosen material. After everything’s set, grout is applied between the pieces to fill gaps and add stability. Choosing the right grout color can either highlight individual tiles or blend them seamlessly.
The Versatility of Mosaic Application
Mosaics are not just confined to floors or walls. They can grace everything from tables to vases, from art pieces to garden paths. I’ve even seen them on pottery, turning an otherwise plain pot into a dazzling masterpiece.
History and Evolution
Historically, mosaics have been used across various cultures and epochs, from ancient Roman villas to Byzantine churches. It’s a timeless art form that has continuously evolved, adapting to modern tastes and techniques.
In today’s world, the possibilities with mosaics seem endless. With advances in materials and tools, contemporary artists and hobbyists alike can experiment and push the boundaries. Some even incorporate unconventional items like broken CDs or beads, giving a fresh spin to this age-old art. It’s always refreshing to see how mosaics, an art form with such deep roots, continues to be relevant and ever-evolving. Whether you’re a creator or an admirer, there’s no denying the allure of a beautifully executed mosaic piece.
10 Airbrushing with Acrylics
Airbrushing with acrylics is such a fantastic medium. When I first encountered it, I was mesmerized by the smooth gradients and subtle hues it can produce. It brings about a seamless blend of colors, giving a soft and polished finish to artworks.
The Basics of Airbrushing
For those unfamiliar, airbrushing is essentially a painting technique that uses a small, handheld tool. It sprays paint onto surfaces by mixing it with compressed air. The control you can achieve with the flow and the misty effects it creates are nothing short of amazing.
Why Choose Acrylics?
Acrylic paints are a popular choice for airbrushing, and it’s easy to see why. They’re water-based, which means they’re easy to clean and environmentally friendly. Plus, they dry quickly, allowing artists to layer colors without waiting ages in between.
Preparing Acrylics for Airbrushing
Before you get started, it’s essential to thin acrylic paints to achieve the right consistency. If the paint is too thick, it can clog the airbrush, but if it’s too thin, you might not get the opacity you want. Generally, a milk-like consistency works well, but it can vary based on personal preferences and the brand of paint.
Techniques and Effects
There’s a wide range of effects you can achieve with airbrushing. From creating soft backgrounds and gradients to detailing and stenciling, the possibilities seem endless. Some artists use masking techniques to protect certain areas while spraying, which can produce sharp and clean edges.
Cleaning and Maintenance
After the fun part is over, it’s crucial to clean the airbrush thoroughly. Any leftover acrylic paint can dry up and clog the equipment. Using water or a special airbrush cleaner helps maintain the tool and ensures it’s ready for your next project. Every time I see an artwork created with airbrushing, I can’t help but admire the skill and finesse it demands. Whether it’s used for murals, canvases, or even body art, airbrushing with acrylics offers an undeniably unique and beautiful touch.
Does the Japanese approach to post-firing glazing differ from other cultures?
When it comes to ceramics, the cultural nuances can be as varied and intricate as the patterns on a pot. The Japanese approach to post-firing glazing is especially interesting, rooted deeply in tradition but also ever-evolving.
To truly appreciate the Japanese approach, we need to go back in time a bit. Japan has a rich history of ceramics that dates back thousands of years. While many cultures focus on achieving perfection in their pieces, the Japanese have a unique philosophy. They often embrace imperfections, seeing beauty in the irregularities and flaws. Think of concepts like “wabi-sabi” – finding beauty in imperfection and transience.
Techniques and Materials
In terms of post-firing glazing, one of the most notable Japanese techniques is Kintsugi. Instead of hiding breaks or cracks, Kintsugi highlights them using gold, silver, or platinum. The philosophy behind it is to embrace the flaws and history of an object, rather than disguising them.
Comparisons with Other Cultures
Now, if we compare this with other cultures, there’s a noticeable difference. While many ceramic traditions aim to produce consistent, flawless pieces, the Japanese approach leans into the natural, the organic, and the imperfect. This isn’t to say that other cultures don’t have methods that embrace imperfection. However, in Japanese ceramics, it’s more of a central philosophy than an occasional technique.In many Western traditions, post-firing techniques might focus more on adding decorative elements or ensuring a piece is as functional as possible. The emphasis might be on achieving a particular color, finish, or pattern rather than highlighting the history or journey of a piece.
A Broader Perspective
Of course, it’s essential to remember that within every culture, there are countless individual artists, each with their own interpretations and methods. So while we can talk about general trends or philosophies, there’s always a wealth of diversity and innovation happening on the ground level.In conclusion, while the Japanese approach to post-firing glazing has its unique characteristics rooted in historical and philosophical backgrounds, it’s just one of the myriad ways cultures around the world interact with ceramics. It’s always a joy for me to discover these nuances and learn how each tradition brings its flavor to the art, don’t you agree!
Is it possible to fire bone dry clay with post-firing techniques?
I say it’s essential to understand the state of “bone dry” clay. This term refers to clay that has lost all its water content and is ready for its initial bisque firing. At this stage, the clay is extremely fragile and must be handled with great care.
The Bisque Firing
Before any post-firing techniques can be applied, the bone dry clay typically goes through a bisque firing. This first firing transforms the clay into ceramic, making it stronger and less porous. After the bisque firing, the piece is no longer soluble in water, and it’s ready for glazing or other post-firing techniques.
Post-Firing Techniques on Bisqueware
Once the clay piece has been bisque-fired, you can apply various post-firing techniques. Whether it’s glazing, applying decals, lusters, or any of the methods we’ve previously discussed, the key is that these techniques are applied after the bisque firing but before the final glaze firing.
Can You Skip the Bisque Firing?
While traditionally, the bisque firing is an essential step, some potters and ceramicists do experiment with “once-firing” where the clay goes from bone dry to glazed in one firing. This method can save energy, but it’s riskier as the clay and glaze undergo their chemical transformations simultaneously, increasing the chances of defects. I have done this many times without any problems when I was in a big hurry.
Are there Kiln Firing Temperatures that are Ideal for Achieving Certain Decorative Effects in Pottery?
Firing temperatures play a pivotal role in achieving various decorative effects in pottery. The kiln’s heat level can influence color, texture, and even the physical properties of the final product.
Low-Fire (Cone 018 – Cone 04, approximately 1112°F – 1945°F)
This clay type fires at lower temperatures and is typically more porous unless glazed. Earthenware can be decorated with bright and bold underglazes and glazes. Think of those vibrant Talavera tiles from Mexico or intricate Italian majolica ware.
Lower firing temperatures are ideal for metallic lusters like gold, platinum, and mother of pearl. These lusters are applied over a glaze and give a shiny metallic or iridescent finish.
Mid-Fire (Cone 5 – Cone 7, approximately 2167°F – 2269°F)
Stoneware clays mature at these temperatures, producing sturdy and less porous ceramics. Many potters opt for mid-firing because it can achieve the strength of high-fire stoneware but allows for the bright colors typically seen in low-fire.
Oxidation vs. Reduction:
While not strictly about temperature, mid-fire temperatures in an oxidation atmosphere (where there’s plenty of oxygen in the kiln) can yield bright, vibrant colors. In contrast, a reduction atmosphere (restricted oxygen) can produce deeper, richer tones and even alter the appearance of certain glazes, making them look more “toasty” or variegated.
High-Fire (Cone 10, around 2345°F)
High-firing is the choice for porcelain, a clay body known for its translucence and purity. At these temperatures, you can achieve a smooth, glassy finish that’s strong and durable.
Salt and Soda Firing:
High temperatures allow for specific firing techniques like salt and soda firing. In these methods, salt or soda is introduced into the kiln, and the high heat makes them vaporize, fusing with the pottery and creating a shiny, often orange-peel-like texture on the surface.
This ancient technique uses wood as fuel, and the ash from the wood can settle on pieces, melting at high temperatures to form a natural ash glaze.
Achieving the desired decorative effect in pottery is a delicate dance between clay type, glaze application, and firing temperature. Kiln temperature isn’t just about hardening the clay; it’s a transformative process that brings out the beauty and character of each piece. Each firing range offers its unique magic, so it’s all about finding what resonates with your creative vision.
Are there any Special Considerations when using Post-firing Techniques on Pre-fired Pieces of Pottery?
Absolutely, when you’re diving into post-firing techniques on pre-fired pottery, there are several unique factors to keep in mind. It’s like giving a ceramic piece another chance to dazzle, but you’ve got to be a bit cautious about it.
Understanding the Clay Body
Previous Firing Temperature:
Knowing how high your piece was previously fired is crucial. If you’ve bisque fired a piece to a high temperature, it might not absorb post-firing treatments as effectively as a piece fired at a lower temperature.
Some clays are more porous than others, and this affects how they’ll react to post-firing treatments. A more porous piece might absorb glazes and other treatments more readily.
If you’re planning to re-glaze a piece that’s already been glazed and fired, be aware that the second layer of glaze may not bond as effectively as the first. The risk here is that the glaze might peel or flake off after the second firing.
Always check if the post-firing glaze you’re using is compatible with the initial glaze. If they aren’t, you might experience crawling, pinholing, or other undesirable effects.
Rapid temperature changes can cause pottery to crack or shatter. Always ensure that your ceramic piece is at room temperature before starting the post-firing process. Likewise, when firing, increase the temperature gradually.
When adding additional layers, whether it’s a glaze, luster, or another treatment, aim for a consistent application. Uneven layers can result in a patchy appearance or issues during firing.
There’s always a risk when firing a piece multiple times. Each subsequent firing can weaken the piece, making it more prone to warping or cracking. It’s essential to monitor the kiln and ensure you’re not over-firing.
Exploration and Experimentation
Honestly, post-firing techniques are an area where a lot of magic and unexpected results can happen. It’s a space where you can play, experiment, and sometimes even be pleasantly surprised. But, like any experimentation, it’s always wise to test on a smaller or less significant piece before you commit to that beloved pottery creation of yours. The more you play around with post-firing, the more you get a feel for how different treatments and firings interact. It’s a journey, but a really exciting one at that!
Conclusion and Summary
This was a very big subject and I was not able to cover everything.
Glazing pottery truly transforms a sculpture, binding the clay particles, especially the finest clay particles, to create a stunning sheen. Remember when you first learned to handle leather hard clay? Ah, that leather hard stage where using clay carving tools felt like a dance between hands and earth. I bet you’ve spent hours on the potter’s wheel, maybe even using a traditional method or two, reminiscing about the ancient art forms.
Speaking of ancient techniques, the combustion process with combustible materials, as seen in the Mishima technique, has been quite the buzz. Mishima, with its intricate designs filled with metal oxides, always feels like painting with pencils.
And hey, if you ever get a commission, even a small commission, it’s such a rewarding experience to show off these techniques. Have you tried Terra sigillata? The making process may be long, but the finished piece? Just magical. A magical process, much like when you wash a piece under a running tap and see that reflective surface come alive.
If you ever visit the British Museum, you’ll find overglaze decoration pieces from the Neolithic era. A testament to the longevity and appeal of these techniques in pottery!
The Missing Step of Pottery. Drieu, Léa, Cédric Lepère, and Martine Regert. “The missing step of pottery chaîne opératoire: considering post-firing treatments on ceramic vessels using macro-and microscopic observation and molecular analysis.” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 27, no. 2 (2020): 302-326.
Alternative Kilns & Firing Techniques. Watkins, James C., and Paul Andrew Wandless. Alternative Kilns & Firing Techniques: Raku, Saggar, Pit, Barrel. Lark Books, 2004.