How To Use Underglaze: Mastering the Art of Underglaze

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It’s a colored ceramic material applied to bisqueware pottery. To use underglaze, prepare the bisque-fired piece and ensure it is clean. Apply the underglaze using a brush, sponge, stencil, or other techniques to create desired patterns. Once dry, apply a clear or tinted glaze, then fire the pottery to seal the underglaze and create a glossy or matte finish.

Tips and Tricks for Success

It’s a technique used to decorate ceramic pieces before they are glazed and fired. This method allows artists to create intricate designs and patterns on their pottery, which are then sealed under a clear or tinted glaze. There are several techniques and steps involved in creating underglaze pottery, from preparing the clay and firing the pottery to applying the underglaze and the final glaze.

“Underglaze pottery is where art and fire unite, breathing life into the colors and patterns that adorn each unique piece.”

Ed Shears

Preparing the clay

The first step in creating underglaze pottery is to prepare the clay. This involves kneading and wedging the clay to remove air bubbles and ensure an even consistency. Once the clay is properly prepared, it can be shaped using various methods such as hand-building, wheel-throwing, or slip casting.

Greenware stage

Once the clay piece has been shaped, it is left to dry until it reaches the greenware stage. Greenware refers to unfired pottery that has dried but not yet been fired in a kiln. It is crucial to let the pottery dry completely to prevent cracks and explosions during firing.

Bisque firing

The dried greenware is then fired in a kiln to create bisqueware. This initial firing, called bisque firing, typically takes place at a temperature between 1700-1900°F (927-1038°C). Bisque firing hardens the clay, making it more durable and easier to handle while still being porous enough to accept underglazes and glazes.

Applying underglaze

Once the bisqueware has cooled, underglazes can be applied. Underglazes are colored ceramic materials, typically made of clay, water, and pigments. They can be applied using various techniques such as painting, sponging, stenciling, slip trailing, or even screen printing. Underglazes allow artists to create detailed and intricate designs on their pottery, as they do not flow or change much during firing.

Underglaze decoration

Some artists choose to add additional decoration at this stage using techniques such as sgraffito, in which the underglaze is partially carved away to reveal the clay body underneath, creating a contrasting design. Another technique is mishima, which involves carving a design into the clay surface, filling it with underglaze, and then scraping away the excess to create a smooth, inlaid pattern.



After the underglaze has been applied and has dried, a clear or tinted glaze is applied over the pottery. Glazes provide a glossy or matte finish and protect the underglaze decoration from wear and tear. They also make the pottery food-safe and watertight. Glazes can be applied by dipping, brushing, pouring, or spraying.

Glaze firing

Finally, the pottery is fired in a kiln for the second time, called glaze firing. This firing typically takes place at a higher temperature than bisque firing, ranging from 2100-2300°F (1149-1260°C) depending on the type of clay and glaze used. This firing vitrifies the clay, making it strong and durable, and melts the glaze, creating a smooth, glass-like surface.

What are the different colors that can be used in underglaze pottery?

Underglaze pottery offers a wide array of colors, ranging from light pastels to deep, vibrant hues. The versatility of underglazes allows artists to create unique, colorful designs on their pottery.

“Working with underglazes is like painting with fire – the kiln’s heat transforms our artistic intentions into vibrant, lasting expressions.”

Ed Shears

Light colors

Light pastel shades such as soft pinks, baby blues, pale yellows, and delicate greens can be used to create subtle, elegant designs. These colors are often employed for delicate patterns and soft gradients that evoke a sense of calm and serenity.

Mid-tone colors

Mid-tone colors like earthy browns, warm oranges, and medium blues offer a more subdued yet still colorful palette. These colors work well in creating natural motifs or when used in combination with other mid-tones to add depth and dimension.

Deep hues

Rich, deep colors like bold reds, dark blues, and intense greens can be used to make a statement with striking contrasts and dramatic designs. Deep hues are ideal for intricate patterns, bold geometric shapes, and expressive brushstrokes.


Metallic underglazes, such as gold, silver, and bronze, can add a touch of luxury and glamour to pottery. These underglazes are typically applied as accents or details to enhance other colors and designs.

Mixing colors

Underglazes can be mixed to create custom shades and gradients, offering endless possibilities for artists. Mixing light and dark shades can produce an extensive range of tones, while blending complementary colors can result in unique, nuanced hues.

When I work with underglazes, it’s crucial to consider how colors might change or shift during firing due to factors like clay body composition, glaze chemistry, and kiln atmosphere. To ensure the desired color outcome, I test underglazes on sample pieces before applying them to my finished work.

Are there any special techniques for mixing and matching different underglaze colors? 

When I mix and match underglaze colors, it’s essential for me to test the colors on sample pieces first to understand how they’ll interact during firing. Different colors might react differently to heat, and some combinations could cause unexpected color shifts or reactions. By testing, I can ensure my final piece will have the desired outcome.

Color blending

To achieve smooth color transitions, you can blend two or more underglaze colors together. Apply the first color, and while it’s still wet, apply the second color next to it. Use a brush or sponge to gently mix the two colors where they meet, creating a seamless gradient.


You can apply multiple layers of underglazes to create depth and texture in your design. Allow each layer to dry before applying the next one, and ensure the previous layer is thin enough to prevent cracking or peeling.


To create a marbled effect, mix two or more underglaze colors directly on the pottery surface by applying small amounts of each color and swirling them together with a brush or other tool. This technique results in unique patterns and color combinations.


Apply one or more layers of underglaze colors to the pottery, then carve away portions of the top layer(s) to reveal the underlying colors or clay body. This technique allows you to create intricate, multi-colored designs.

Wax resist

Apply a wax resist to the pottery in specific areas where you want to preserve the current color. Then, apply a different underglaze color over the waxed areas. The wax will resist the new color, and when removed, will reveal the original color beneath.


Use stencils to apply different underglaze colors in precise shapes and patterns. This technique is great for creating complex, multi-colored designs with clean edges and high contrast.

“The beauty of underglaze pottery lies in its ability to capture the artist’s imagination and make it withstand the test of time, through the transformative power of the kiln.”


How can I make sure my pottery looks consistent when using multiple layers of underglaze?

When planning my design, I sketch it out on paper or the pottery itself using a pencil, giving me a clear roadmap for applying the underglaze layers.

I apply each layer of underglaze evenly, using the same technique, whether brushing, sponging, or another method. This consistency helps ensure a uniform and visually appealing result.

I allow each layer of underglaze to dry thoroughly before applying the next one, preventing unintentional color blending and reducing smudging or streaking.

I pay attention to the thickness of each underglaze layer, as consistent thickness across layers helps maintain uniformity in color and design.

Before applying underglaze colors to my pottery, I test them on sample pieces to ensure they behave as expected when layered and fired. This helps me understand how colors will interact and create a consistent final result.

I make sure my kiln is properly calibrated and maintained for consistent firing temperatures, as inconsistent firing can cause variations in color and finish.

I keep a record of colors, techniques, and firing details for each project, making it invaluable when I want to recreate a specific look or troubleshoot inconsistencies.

Are there any tips for making solid blocks of color with an underglaze application? 

Achieving solid blocks of color with underglaze application can be challenging, but with a few tips, I can create vibrant, uniform results:

I make sure the underglaze has the right consistency. If it’s too thick, it may be difficult to apply evenly; if it’s too thin, the color may appear washed out. If needed, I add a small amount of water to adjust the consistency.

I use a soft brush with a flat or rounded tip to achieve a smooth and even application of the underglaze. The brush size should be appropriate for the area I’m covering.

I apply the underglaze in multiple thin layers rather than one thick layer. I let each layer dry before applying the next one. This technique results in a more even coverage and reduces the likelihood of streaks or brush marks.

When applying each layer, I brush the underglaze in the same direction to maintain consistency. This can minimize visible brush strokes and promote a more uniform appearance.

For added coverage, I apply the first layer of underglaze in one direction, let it dry, and then apply the second layer in the opposite direction, creating a crosshatched pattern. This helps achieve a more even distribution of color.

As with any underglaze application, I test the color on a sample piece before applying it to my pottery. This helps me understand how many layers are needed to achieve the desired opacity and vibrancy.

For large areas or a more even distribution, I use a damp sponge to apply the underglaze. The sponge absorbs excess liquid and helps create a more uniform layer of color.

By following these tips, I can create solid blocks of color with an underglaze application, enhancing the visual appeal of my pottery.

Can I use more than one type of glazing technique in combination with the underglazes? 

Mixing various glazing techniques allows me to create unique and interesting effects on my pottery. It’s essential to test different combinations on sample pieces first to ensure the desired outcome before applying them to my final work.

“Underglaze pottery is a canvas for creativity, where the artist’s hand meets the raw potential of clay, and together they create something that transcends time and space.”

David Jackson

What is the best way to use underglaze pencils to create a desired clay color?

To achieve my desired clay color using underglaze pencils, I follow these steps:

  1. I make sure my clay surface is clean and dry, as dust or moisture can affect the application of the underglaze pencil.
  2. I sketch my design lightly onto the clay surface, either freehand or using a stencil or pattern.
  3. I apply the underglaze pencil by drawing directly onto the clay, pressing firmly to deposit the color. I can create various effects by varying the pressure, using hatching or cross-hatching techniques, or blending the colors.
  4. If necessary, I can use a damp brush or sponge to soften or blend the pencil lines, creating a smoother color transition or shading effect.
  5. After completing my design, I allow the underglaze pencil to dry thoroughly on the clay surface.
  6. I carefully apply a clear or transparent glaze over the underglaze pencil design to protect it during the firing process and enhance the final color.
  7. As always, I test the underglaze pencil on sample pieces before applying it to my final work to ensure the desired clay color is achieved.

What are some common mistakes when working with Underglazes?

  1. Not testing colors beforehand – I always test colors on sample pieces to understand how they will appear after firing and how they interact with the clay body and glazes.
  2. Applying underglazes too thickly – I apply thin, even layers, allowing each layer to dry before adding the next one. This approach reduces the risk of cracking or uneven coverage.
  3. Skipping proper surface preparation – I clean and dry the clay surface before applying underglazes, ensuring that dust or moisture won’t interfere with the color application.
  4. Not sealing the underglaze – I apply a clear or transparent glaze over the underglaze design to protect it during firing and enhance the final appearance.
  5. Rushing the drying process – I allow each layer of underglaze to dry thoroughly before adding the next one, preventing unwanted blending or smudging.
  6. Inconsistent firing temperatures – I make sure my kiln is properly calibrated and maintained to ensure consistent firing temperatures, which can affect the final color and finish.
  7. Ignoring manufacturer recommendations – I follow the instructions provided by the underglaze manufacturer regarding application techniques, layering, and firing temperatures for optimal results.

What kind of soft sheen can be achieved with an underglaze finish?

To achieve a soft sheen with an underglaze finish, I use a clear or satin glaze over the underglaze design. The satin glaze provides a smooth, low-gloss finish that softly reflects light, creating a subtle sheen on the pottery surface. This gentle shine enhances the underglaze colors and design while maintaining the pottery’s overall soft appearance. Remember to test the satin glaze on a sample piece before applying it to your final work to ensure the desired soft sheen effect.

“The dance of underglaze colors on pottery is a testament to the magic of chemistry and the vision of the artist.”

Ed Shears

Is it possible to transfer an underglaze design onto thin paper?

it is possible to transfer an underglaze design onto thin paper using a technique called underglaze transfer or tissue transfer. Here’s one way on how I do it (there are many different techniques):

  1. I create my design on a computer or draw it by hand. If drawing by hand, I use a dark, fine-tipped pen or pencil to ensure clean lines.
  2. I print or trace the design onto thin tracing paper or underglaze transfer paper. I make sure to reverse the image if my design includes text or needs to face a specific direction when transferred.
  3. I mix underglaze colors with a small amount of water or gum solution to achieve a smooth, paint-like consistency.
  4. Using a fine brush, I carefully paint over the lines of the design on the paper. I apply the underglaze evenly and avoid making it too thick, as this may cause smudging during the transfer process.
  5. Once the underglaze is dry, I gently place the paper, underglaze side down, onto the clay surface. I carefully smooth out any wrinkles or air bubbles with a soft, dry brush or my fingertips.
  6. I use a damp sponge or cloth to wet the back of the paper lightly. This step helps the underglaze adhere to the clay surface. I’m careful not to over-wet the paper, as it may cause the underglaze to bleed or smudge.
  7. After allowing the paper to sit for a few moments, I carefully peel it away, revealing the transferred underglaze design on the clay surface.
  8. I allow the underglaze design to dry thoroughly before applying any glazes or firing the pottery.

Alternate method using transfer sheets

An alternative method to painting over the lines of the design on paper with a fine brush is using underglaze transfer sheets that are commercially available. These pre-made sheets have underglaze designs already printed on them, which simplifies the transfer process. Here’s how I use these transfer sheets:

  1. I select an underglaze transfer sheet with my desired design. These sheets come in various patterns and colors, offering a wide range of options.
  2. I cut out the design from the transfer sheet, making sure to leave a small margin around the edges.
  3. I position the transfer sheet, underglaze side down, onto the clay surface, aligning it where I want the design to appear.
  4. Using a damp sponge or cloth, I gently press the transfer sheet onto the clay, ensuring it adheres well and that there are no air bubbles or wrinkles.
  5. I carefully peel back the transfer sheet, revealing the underglaze design on the clay surface.
  6. I allow the underglaze design to dry thoroughly before applying any glazes or firing the pottery.

By using pre-made underglaze transfer sheets, I can easily apply intricate designs to my pottery without the need to paint the design by hand.

And yet another method using a sgraffito technique

If you prefer not to use a transfer sheet and want an alternative method to hand-painting the design, you can try the sgraffito technique. This technique involves applying a layer of underglaze directly to the clay surface and then carving the design into the underglaze, revealing the clay body beneath. Here’s how I do it:

  1. I prepare the clay surface by ensuring it is clean and free of dust or debris.
  2. I apply a layer of underglaze evenly onto the clay surface using a brush or sponge. I choose a contrasting color to the clay body for better visibility.
  3. I let the underglaze dry slightly but not completely, reaching a leather-hard stage, which is ideal for carving.
  4. I sketch my design onto the underglaze-coated clay surface using a pencil or a needle tool, being careful not to press too hard and damage the clay.
  5. Using carving tools, such as a needle tool or a small loop tool, I carefully carve away the underglaze following the lines of my design. This process reveals the clay body beneath, creating a contrast between the underglaze and the exposed clay.
  6. After completing the carving, I gently brush away any loose underglaze debris to ensure a clean design.
  7. I allow the underglaze and carved design to dry thoroughly before applying any glazes or firing the pottery.

Do airbrushes work in applying an underglaze design on pottery or clay surfaces?

Yes, airbrushes can be used to apply underglaze designs on pottery or clay surfaces. Using an airbrush for underglaze application allows for smooth, even coverage and can create beautiful gradients, shading, and subtle color transitions. Here’s how I use an airbrush for applying underglaze:

  1. I ensure the clay surface is clean, dry, and free of dust or debris.
  2. I prepare the underglaze by thinning it with water or an appropriate medium to achieve a consistency suitable for airbrushing. The underglaze should be fluid enough to flow smoothly through the airbrush without clogging it.
  3. I set up the airbrush, connecting it to an air compressor, and adjusting the air pressure according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  4. I pour the thinned underglaze into the airbrush’s paint reservoir.
  5. I practice my technique on a scrap piece of clay or paper to get a feel for the airbrush’s flow and control before applying it to my pottery.
  6. Using steady, even strokes, I airbrush the underglaze onto the clay surface, maintaining a consistent distance from the surface to ensure even coverage.
  7. If I want to create intricate designs or details, I can use stencils or masking materials to block off areas of the clay surface before airbrushing.
  8. I allow the airbrushed underglaze to dry thoroughly before applying any glazes or firing the pottery.

Safety precautions using an airbrush with glaze

When using glaze with an airbrush, it’s essential to follow safety precautions to protect yourself and maintain a safe working environment. Here are some key safety measures I take when airbrushing glaze:

I work in a well-ventilated area to reduce the inhalation of glaze particles and fumes. Opening windows, using a fan, or working outdoors can help maintain proper airflow.

I wear a NIOSH-approved dust mask or respirator to protect my lungs from inhaling glaze particles or fumes. I also wear safety goggles to shield my eyes from potential splatters and gloves to minimize skin contact with glaze materials.

I keep my work area clean and free of clutter to reduce the risk of accidents. I regularly wipe down surfaces and tools to prevent glaze residue buildup.

I store glaze materials, including underglazes, in clearly labeled containers to avoid confusion and reduce the risk of accidental ingestion or misuse.

I dispose of excess glaze, cleaning water, and other materials according to local regulations and recommendations. This practice helps protect the environment and maintain a safe workspace.

I clean and maintain my airbrush regularly, following the manufacturer’s instructions. Proper maintenance reduces the risk of equipment malfunction and ensures safe operation.

I familiarize myself with the glaze materials I use, including their ingredients, toxicity, and any specific safety precautions. This knowledge helps me handle materials responsibly and safely.

How does watercolor painting differ from using Underglaze? 

Watercolor painting and using underglaze share some similarities in application techniques, but they have fundamental differences due to their intended purposes, materials, and final outcomes. Comparing the two:

Watercolor painting is mainly for creating artwork on paper or canvas, while underglaze decorates ceramic surfaces like pottery or tiles before glazing and firing.

Watercolors consist of pigments in a water-soluble binder, like gum arabic. Underglazes contain pigments, clay, and ceramic materials that withstand high firing temperatures.

Watercolor paintings are on absorbent surfaces like paper or canvas, allowing paint to soak in and create effects. Underglaze is applied to clay or bisque-fired ceramics, which may need different techniques.

Watercolor paintings don’t need firing, but underglaze-decorated pottery must be kiln-fired to set the underglaze and achieve the desired finish.

Watercolors can be reactivated with water even after drying. In contrast, underglaze can’t be reactivated with water once dried.

Watercolors are usually transparent, allowing for color layering and luminous effects. Underglazes range from opaque to semi-transparent, based on formulation, application thickness, and firing temperature.

Watercolor paintings maintain their appearance, while underglaze colors can change during firing due to factors like clay composition, glaze chemistry, and kiln atmosphere.

The history of underglaze pottery

Underglaze pottery has a rich history that dates back over a thousand years. Its origins can be traced to ancient China, where innovative ceramic techniques were developed and refined. The use of underglazes then spread across different cultures, including the Middle East and Europe, as the beauty and intricacy of the designs became widely appreciated.

In China, underglaze pottery emerged during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE). The technique of using cobalt blue underglaze on white porcelain was further developed during the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 CE) and reached its zenith in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 CE). The famous “blue and white” porcelain, with intricate patterns and motifs, became a hallmark of Chinese ceramics. The vibrant cobalt blue pigment used for the underglaze was initially imported from Persia, making it a valuable and luxurious commodity.

As trade routes expanded, the technique of underglaze pottery spread to the Islamic world. Middle Eastern potters, particularly in Iran, adapted the Chinese blue and white porcelain style, adding their own motifs and designs. These ceramics were typically characterized by intricate patterns and calligraphy, reflecting Islamic art and culture. The Iznik pottery from Turkey, dating back to the 15th and 16th centuries, is another famous example of underglaze pottery in the Islamic world, renowned for its bright colors and detailed floral designs.

By the 14th and 15th centuries, underglaze pottery reached Europe through trade and cultural exchange. The Dutch city of Delft became a prominent center for producing blue and white tin-glazed earthenware, known as Delftware. This pottery often featured Dutch landscapes, seascapes, and other European motifs, and became popular throughout Europe.

In Italy, the technique of underglaze pottery was also embraced during the Renaissance, resulting in the famous Majolica ware. Majolica pottery showcased vibrant colors, detailed designs, and often depicted scenes from mythology or history.

Throughout history, underglaze pottery has transcended geographical and cultural boundaries, evolving into various regional styles and forms. Its enduring popularity is a testament to the beauty, versatility, and artistic potential of this unique ceramic technique.

What are the different types of underglaze pottery?

Underglaze pottery encompasses a wide range of styles and forms, from simple wares to elaborate dinnerware, reflecting the diverse artistic expressions and cultural influences over time. The diverse types of underglaze pottery reflect the versatility and artistic potential of this ceramic technique. From simple functional wares to elaborate dinnerware and art pottery, underglaze decorations have been used to create visually stunning and culturally significant pieces across various regions and eras. Here are some different types of underglaze pottery:

Simple wares

These everyday pottery items, such as bowls, plates, cups, and mugs, may feature basic underglaze designs or patterns, providing functional yet aesthetically pleasing tableware. These simple wares often use a single color or limited color palette, focusing on utility rather than artistic intricacy.

Blue and white porcelain

Originating in China, this iconic style of underglaze pottery is characterized by cobalt blue designs on white porcelain. The detailed patterns often depict scenes from nature, mythology, or daily life, showcasing the skill and artistry of the ceramist.

Iznik pottery

Hailing from Turkey, Iznik pottery is renowned for its bright colors, intricate floral motifs, and geometric patterns. The rich palette, including red, green, and blue, creates a vivid and striking effect on the ceramic surface.


Originating in the Dutch city of Delft, this blue and white tin-glazed earthenware often features European motifs, such as landscapes, seascapes, and windmills. Delftware has become synonymous with Dutch ceramic art, and it is highly sought after by collectors.


Italian Majolica pottery, with its vibrant colors and detailed designs, emerged during the Renaissance. This type of underglaze pottery often features scenes from mythology, history, or allegorical representations, reflecting the artistic and cultural influences of the time.

Elaborate dinnerware

Underglaze techniques have been employed in creating fine dinnerware sets, including plates, serving dishes, teapots, and other tableware items. These elegant and ornate ceramics may feature intricate patterns, monograms, or heraldic symbols, reflecting the personal taste or status of the owner.

Art pottery

Some underglaze pottery transcends functional purposes and serves as decorative or collectible art pieces. These ceramics can include vases, figurines, and sculptures, showcasing the artist’s creativity and skill through imaginative designs and forms.

Conclusion And Summary

When using underglaze effectively, keep these key aspects in mind:

Apply underglaze evenly with a suitable technique, such as brushing, sponging, or airbrushing, to ensure consistent application.

Allow each layer to dry thoroughly before applying the next one, preventing color blending and reducing smudging or streaking.

Test underglaze colors on sample pieces before applying them to your pottery to make sure they behave as expected when fired.

Experiment with mixing and matching different underglaze colors, being mindful of how they interact during the firing process.

Transfer designs using pencils, transfer sheets, or other techniques for creating precise and intricate patterns.

Maintain consistent thickness across layers to achieve uniformity in color and design.

Follow safety guidelines when working with underglazes, particularly when using tools like airbrushes, to protect yourself and your workspace.

5 Things you did not know about underglazes

Congratulations you made it this far!!!

  1. Underglaze can be applied to leather-hard clay: Many people assume underglazes can only be applied to bisque-fired pottery. However, they can also be applied to leather-hard clay, allowing artists to incorporate designs and colors at an earlier stage in the pottery-making process.
  2. Underglaze pencils and crayons: Apart from using traditional brushes, underglaze can also be applied with specialized pencils and crayons, giving artists more control and precision when creating intricate designs or adding fine details.
  3. Mixing underglazes with clear glazes: Some artists may not be aware that they can mix underglazes with clear glazes to create a tinted glaze. This technique can produce unique effects and a more translucent look to the finished piece.
  4. Underglaze decals and transfers: Custom underglaze decals or transfers can be created using a printer with ceramic toners or by hand-painting designs onto special transfer paper. These decals can be applied to pottery to achieve consistent and intricate patterns, which might not be widely known.
  5. Layering with wax resist: Using a wax resist in conjunction with underglazes is not common knowledge. Applying a wax resist between layers of different underglaze colors can create interesting effects and prevent colors from blending together, allowing for more complex designs and patterns.

Discover the Magic of Underglaze Poem

In a quaint pottery workshop, one fine day, Sarah set her heart on molding clay, A special gift for a dear friend’s birthday, A ceramic mug, with underglaze to portray.

A novice potter, eager to learn, To experienced potters, she took her turn, Advice and techniques, they did share, For underglaze application, with skill and care.

On paper, she sketched a design divine, Floral patterns and initials, beautifully entwined, With underglaze pencils and a brush so fine, Onto the bisque-fired mug, the artwork did shine.

Thin, even layers, with patience and grace, Each one dried before the next took its place, Vibrant colors, with thickness just right, Sarah’s vision came to life, a splendid sight.

Experimentation with hues, on samples she tried, How the colors fired, she couldn’t let it slide, The perfect combination, she did ascertain, Only then, on the mug, the colors did reign.

With underglaze complete, a clear glaze to seal, A glossy finish to protect, its beauty to reveal, Into the kiln, with temperature and care, The birthday gift, in fire’s embrace, prepared.

When unveiled at last, the mug, a masterpiece, A vibrant design, the joy would not cease, Her friend overjoyed, a gift so personalized, The endless possibilities of underglaze realized.


The Potter’s Bible by Marilyn Scott

Mastering Cone 6 Glazes by John Hesselberth and Ron Roy

Ceramics Handbook: A Guide to Glaze Calculation, Materials & Processes by Charles McKee

Ceramic Arts Network (

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