The Fall of Icarus is an oil painting on canvas that is now on exhibit at the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels. It measures 28.9 by 44 inches. It was long thought to have been created by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, the leading painter of the Dutch and Flemish Renaissance movement.
|Landscape with the Fall of Icarus||The Fall of Icarus Specifics|
|Artist||Pieter Bruegel the Elder. One of the most admired painters in the history of Western art.|
|Art Medium||Oil painting|
|Location of Painting||Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels. A group of art museums in Brussels, Belgium. They include six museums: the Old Masters’ Museum, the Magritte Museum, the Fin-de-Siècle Museum, the Modern Museum, the Antoine Wiertz Museum, and the Constantin Meunier Museum.|
|Painting Dimensions||Breughel’s Icarus 28.9 in × 44 in (73.5 cm × 112 cm)|
|Painting Derived From||Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō known in English as Ovid a Roman Poet|
|Described In||W. H. Auden’s famous poem “Musée des Beaux-Arts”|
What Is The Meaning Of The Painting The Fall of Icarus?
The meaning of “The Fall of Icarus” is supposed to be seen as a story about the hopes and dreams of people. This is according to John Sutherland. The figure of Icarus from Greek mythology is shown falling into the water in the bottom (Icarus drowning) right-hand corner of the oil painting. Icarus is an example of what happens to arrogant people.
What Is The Moral Behind Icarus?
The story of Icarus teaches us to avoid hubris. Do not fly too high. We acknowledge that limits exist. Yet we set limits only to break them, and our desire to be the best in our respective fields compels us to take risks that sometimes destroy us. The story of Icarus teaches us to fly with care and respect for the limits that nature has placed on us.
What Does The Sun Symbolize In Icarus?
How often has someone warned you not to fly too close to the burning sun? One of the most well-known tales from antiquity is the Greek myth of Icarus, which serves as a perfect illustration of what can happen if you disregard this caution. It tells the tale of a father and son who made an attempt to fly away from captivity. According to legend, the boy Icarus is punished for flying too close to the sun and thus failing to heed his father’s advice (father’s warnings).
What Dominates The Landscape Of The Painting The Fall of Icarus?
Two floundering upturned legs (of the mythical hero) (tragic hero’s downfall) are used to represent Icarus, whose impending doom is hardly noticeable in (everyday life, rural life) this colorful environment. Instead, Williams’ poem begins with the labor of the plowman in the painting’s foreground coming to the forefront (implied depth and planar relationships, implied depth and planar relationships), just as it does when first viewing the painting.
Bruegel’s egalitarian vision have had an effect on art today. Wilfried Seipel says that Bruegel’s paintings “form a cycle, indeed an epic of human existence in its helplessness not only in the face of nature but also when faced with the seemingly unchangeable course of world history,” which goes beyond “psychological and iconological interpretation and independent of biographical and contemporary historical preconditions.” Bruegel’s decision to show common people in everyday domestic scenes (idyllic landscape paintings) was a step forward for the Dutch Golden Age artists of the next century.
Where is Daedalus In The Painting Landscape With The Fall of Icarus?
The artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder (talented artist) painted an island halfway to the port. A number of sailing boats with billowing sails next to this island give the composition more depth, overall cohesion and a sense of deep space. The artist painted an island halfway to the port. Its appearance, which is equal parts prison and fortress (an enclosed area), which give the viewer a floating sensation. The island is reminiscent of the Island of Crete, where Minos imprisoned Daedalus and Icarus.
Greek Mythology’s Account Of Icarus
Greek mythology describes Icarus as the son of Daedalus, a craftsman (master craftsman Daedalus) who also built the Labyrinth. He resided on a Cretan island ruled by King Minos. Icarus’s father was a well-known inventor of magnificent and original mechanical systems. The leader was impressed by the invention Daedalus made for King Minos’ daughter. King Minos hired Icarus’s father to construct a cage to house the half-bull, half-man monster known as the Minotaur. The infamous Labyrinth was built by Daedalus.
Icarus’ father’s work had greatly impressed King Minos, and as a result, he decided to lock up both Icarus and Daedalus so that the inventor could work exclusively for him. The young man and his father were imprisoned in a cave above sea level due to the king’s greed. The Minotaur’s (half-bull monster) locked labyrinth (Cretan labyrinth, maze-like structure), which was also guarded by the king’s soldiers, was the only way to get out of the prison. The entrance to the prison was located on the side of a tall cliff that descended to the sea below. This was the alternate route out of the detention center.
Icarus and his father, Daedalus, initially accepted King Minos’s decision to imprison them. The king immediately granted all of Icarus’s father’s requests. They both received an abundance of food, as well as the tools the inventor needed to create his new inventions. Icarus, who was still a child at the time they were imprisoned by the king, didn’t moan and even enjoyed helping his father with his new inventions and, in particular, enjoyed playing with the toys he had made especially for him.
The young Icarus came to understand that he would spend all of his days in the cave as he grew older. Icarus was sick of living in the damp, chilly cave and was beginning to despair of ever having a life, so Daedalus also gave thought to his son’s welfare.
Icarus, then 16 years old, began to gripe at his father, telling him he wanted to go on adventures, meet a girl, take her home as his wife, and have his own child. Even the king, the cave, and his father were objects of his hatred. Icarus, however, immediately expressed regret after the outburst. Icarus’s father requested that King Minos make his son one of the royal guards due to the anger Icarus had displayed, and the king gave it some thought.
Icarus may have inherited his father’s skills, so the king ultimately made the decision to keep him company and not let him leave. Daedalus fashioned wings from wooden frames to allow them to flee. The wings were wax-tightly (bees wax) fastened and covered in large feathers (wax wings).
Daedalus advised Icarus to fly between the sun and the ocean when they took to the air because flying too close to the sea would dampen the feathers, and flying too close to the sun would cause the wax to melt (wings’ wax). Icarus, despite his father’s fervent pleading, got carried away as they flew and went too close to the sun, melting the wax and sending him plummeting hundreds of feet to his death.
Daedalus was the first person to try out what he had made. As he floats in a strong breeze, he tells Icarus to fly between two extremes. If he flies too low, the ocean will swallow him, and if he flies too high, the Sun will burn him.
Depiction In The Fall of Icarus Painting
According to Greek mythology, Icarus could fly thanks to his father Daedalus’ beeswax-sealed feather wings. Icarus disregarded his father’s advice and flew too close to the sun, melting the wax (on Icarus’ wings), which caused him to crash into the water and perish.
Just below the ship, his legs are visible in the water. The sun is far away and has already begun to set on the horizon; Icarus’s flight did not get close to the sun in Bruegel’s version of the painting.
Daedalus does not appear in this rendition of the painting.
They are “astonished and think to see gods approaching them through the ether,” which is not entirely the impression given in the painting, according to Ovid’s account of the legend, which also mentions the plowman, shepherd, and angler. Another interpretation of the composition may explain why the shepherd is looking upward and away from the ship; in the original painting, there was also probably a figure of Daedalus in the sky to the left.
A Flemish proverb that highlights people’s insensitivity to the suffering of others. The painting may, as Auden’s poem suggests, illustrate humanity’s indifference to suffering by emphasizing the routine activities that continue to take place despite Icarus’s unnoticed death.
In traditional landscape (Winter Landscape) paintings, subjects are represented by tiny figures in the distance. An established tradition in Early Netherlandish paintings, as pioneered by Joachim Patinir, is to have a much larger, unrelated figure in the foreground.
Other Bruegel landscapes feature figures in a raised foreground, such as The Hunters in the Snow (1565) and other modern works from that series of paintings (vivid image) depicting the seasons.
The traditional moral of the Icarus story, warning against excessive ambition, is reinforced by fore-grounding figures who appear content to fill their daily agricultural work as if it’s just another sunny day.
Analysis of Bruegel’s The Fall of Icarus Painting
The painting (Breughel’s Icarus) is most likely a reproduction of a lost Bruegel original. Based on Bruegel’s other works, the lost original has been assigned a date of c. 1558. One of the mysteries yet to be solved.
The copy was most likely made in the 1560s or shortly thereafter. It is painted in oils, as opposed to the tempera (a method of painting in which an albuminous or colloidal medium such as egg yolk is used as a vehicle) instead of oil that Bruegel used for his other canvas paintings. Before the museum acquired it in 1912, no one knew about the existence of the piece.
A second, generally inferior version on wood was discovered. Daniel van Buuren bought it in 1953 for his home and it is now on display in a museum in Brussels (Brussels museum). Icarus is in the water in this version, which leaves out the far left and right sides of the composition, but Daedelus is still in the air, and the shepherd is looking at him, which explains one element of the composition in the other version.
The original was likely Bruegel’s only depiction of a mythological figure in a painting. Although this may increase the composition’s impact, the perspective of the ship and the people is not entirely consistent.
Since the Museum acquired it in 1912, several experts have questioned the painting’s authenticity, primarily for two reasons:
- The painting’s inferior quality in comparison to other Bruegels, though this issue is complicated by later over-painting.
- The fact that it is an oil painting on canvas is an exception in the work of Peter Bruegel the Elder, who made all of his oil paintings on wood.
The museum’s curator Philippe Roberts-Jones and the Bruegel expert Georges Marlier proposed the theory in 1963 that an original wood painting had been later transferred to canvas, as was once common.
After the famous artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder died in 1569, his works were very interesting for many years. Today, they are still very interesting. At the end of the sixteenth century and in the first half of the seventeenth, the most ambitious art collectors fought over the few paintings by the master that were still for sale. This setting led to copies, pastiches, and even deliberate forgeries.
More on Pieter Bruegel
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Pieter Brueghel the Elder) – One of the most admired painters in the history of Western art. The Dutch Renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder painted Peasant Dance masterpiece in oil on panel around the year 1567. Napoleon Bonaparte stole it and took it to Paris in 1808. It was sent back in 1815. The panel was made around 1567, around the same time as The Peasant Wedding, but it is not signed or dated. The paintings are the same size, so they might have been made to go together or to be part of a set showing how peasants lived. They are the two best examples of Bruegel’s late style, which is known for its large, Italianate-style figures.
Peasant Bruegel – He dropped the ‘h’ from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel. He is sometimes called “Peasant Bruegel” to distinguish him from the many later painters in his family, such as his son Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564-1638). Jan Brueghel the Elder – When Pieter, later known as Pieter Brueghel the Younger, and Jan, later known as Jan Brueghel the Elder, married Bruegel, they started an artistic dynasty that included their two sons. In the years after the elder Bruegel died (elder Bruegel’s death), his son Pieter made many copies of his father’s paintings. This made them famous all over the world, but it also made it hard to tell if certain pieces were made by the father or the son.
Bruegel is known for his complicated pieces that show many groups of people doing small things with each other. These pieces, which are often satirical or instructive, have a common theme that has had a big impact on the history of art. For example, Dutch Symbolist and Expressionist James Ennor’s Allegory of Christ’s Entry into Brussels (l888) and The Baths at Ostend (l890) show how Bruegel’s allegorical tableaux influenced him (l890).
Even though Pieter Bruegel is known as one of the best artists of the Northern Renaissance, not much is known about his childhood. All that is known about Peeter Brueghel’s life is that he was born in or near Breda, the Netherlands, between 1525 and 1530 into a family that most people think was from the countryside.
Bruegel’s early training included working as an apprentice for the Flemish artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst. After Van Aelst died in 1550, he moved to Antwerp. There, he was hired to help make a three-panel altarpiece for the guild of glovemakers. In 1551, Bruegel was chosen to be a member of the Guild of St. Luke in Antwerp. This was a big step in his career, which was based on the guild system.
Pieter Bruegel was an apprentice to Pieter Coecke van Aelst. Pieter Coecke van Aelst, or Pieter Coecke van Aelst the Elder, was a Flemish painter, sculptor, architect, author, and designer of woodcuts, stained glass, goldsmith’s work, and tapestries. Most of what he wrote about was related to Christianity.
When Bruegel left Antwerp in 1552, he went to Italy for a long time to paint and do research. Even though the young artist had no formal training in the Renaissance style of Italy, the countryside he saw had a big impact on him, and he would later become famous for his landscape paintings. The part of Bruegel’s trip home that went through the Swiss Alps was very important. In this and other ways, he tried to get as close to nature as possible. He “swallowed all the mountains and rocks and spat them out again as panels on which to paint.” “Karel van Mander, who wrote the first biography of him, says this.
In 1555, Bruegel moved back to Antwerp and went to work for the Dutch artist Hieronymus Cock as an engraver. Bruegel was also called “Pieter the Droll” because he used funny ideas and themes in the engravings he made for his boss. Van Mander tried to say something about Bruegel’s interesting personality by calling him a “”charming” person; “a calm and careful person. He was one of the funniest men in society because he didn’t say much but could surprise people with his jokes and sounds.”
In the middle of his career, he made engravings and paintings that looked a lot like the work of the Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosch because they showed complicated, fantastical scenes (c. 1450-1516). Cock took advantage of this reputation by passing off Big Fish Eat Little Fish (1556), an engraving by Bruegel, as an original by Bosch in order to get a higher price for the piece (Bosch had in fact died 40 years before the work was created).
Bruegel made a number of works at the end of his life that showed religious stories and everyday life. Art historians have been arguing about the meaning of certain works for hundreds of years because of how they made people feel. Early critics often saw Bruegel’s paintings as funny depictions of the promiscuity and lasciviousness of the lower classes. Bruegel, on the other hand, has been seen in recent years as trying to make that class look better by showing them in a happy light. Two art historians, Rose-Marie Hagen and Rainer Hagen, put it this way: “The fact that he would even think something like that was worth painting sets him apart from almost all of his peers.” It was important to the Italians and Romans to point out what made people different from other species. Bruegel points out how similar they are, even though they have many of the same traits. He also says, “Bruegel’s vivid and sensual pictures of life in the countryside can be seen as part of a growing sense of national identity.” The same is true for William Dello Russo.
Definitions, Famous Artists For Inspiration and Notes
Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage – The Belgian Federal Science Policy Office runs the federal Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage. The institute looks into and takes care of Belgium’s artistic and cultural assets. Its job is to do research and help the public.
Musee des Beaux Arts (Musee des Beaux Arts Musee des Beaux-Arts) – Two works: “Musée des Beaux Arts” is a poem by W. H. Auden. He wrote it in December 1938 (Brueghel and Other Poems, considers Icarus painting not an important failure) while he and Christopher Isherwood were staying in Brussels, Belgium. It was first printed as “Palais des beaux arts” in the Spring 1939 issue of John Lehmann’s modernist magazine New Writing.
Tragedy – A play or piece of writing in which the main character is destroyed or goes through a lot of pain, usually because of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to deal with bad situations.
Free verse poem – Free verse is an open form, which means that it doesn’t have a set length or structure. Since there is no set rhyme scheme or meter, there are no rules for how to break lines or divide stanzas.
Birth of the Airplane – Other artists of the time took notice of the painting when it came out in 1912, around the same time that the airplane was invented. For example, John Singer Sargent went to the Western Front to get ideas for a war painting for the British government.
Ovid – A Roman poet. Publius Ovidius Naso was born on March 20, 43 BCE Rome, and died in 17/18 CE. In the English-speaking world, he is known as Ovid (/vd/). He is best known for the Metamorphoses, a 15-book mythological story written in epic meter, and for his collections of love poetry in elegiac couplets, especially the Amores (“Love Affairs”) and Ars Amatoria (“Art of Love”). His poetry was copied a lot in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, and it had a big impact on art and writing in the West. The Metamorphoses is still one of the best places to learn about ancient myths.
Portrait – Portrait painting is a type of painting in which the goal is to show a certain person. The word “portrait painting” can also be used to talk about the portrait itself. Portrait artists can do their work for both public and private clients, or they can do it because they like or admire the subject.
Baroque – A style of art and architecture that developed in Europe from the early 17th century to the middle of the 18th century. It focuses on dramatic, often forced effects and is characterized by bold, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and a balance of different parts.
Michelangelo – Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance. His full name was Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni. He was born in the Republic of Florence. His work was influenced by ancient art and had a long-lasting effect on Western art.
Shakespeare – William Shakespeare was a writer, poet, and actor from England. Many people think he is the best writer in the English language and the best dramatist in the world. He is often called “the Bard of Avon” and “the national poet of England.”
Louvre – The Louvre, also called the Louvre Museum, is the most-visited museum in the world and a famous landmark in the French city of Paris. Some of the most famous pieces of art are kept there, like the Mona Lisa and the Venus de Milo. It is the most famous building in the city and is on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement.
Claude Monet – Oscar-Claude Monet was a French painter who started the impressionist style. His attempts to paint nature as he saw it are seen as a key step toward modernism.
Richard Eberhart – American poet Richard Ghormley Eberhart wrote more than a dozen books of poetry and about twenty works in all. “By the end of the 1930s, Richard Eberhart had become a modern stylist with a romantic side.” He won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Selected Poems, 1930–1965 and the National Book Award for Poetry in 1977 for Collected Poems, 1930–1976. He was the grandfather of Ben Cherington, who used to be the general manager of the Red Sox.
Literature – The collection of writings from a certain time, place, or culture.
Novelists – A person who creates or spreads new ideas.
Herbert James Draper – Herbert James Draper was an English Classicist painter whose career began in the Victorian era and lasted through the first two decades of the 20th century.
Tower of Babel – Genesis 11:1–9 tells the story of the Tower of Babel. It is an origin story that tries to explain why people all over the world speak different languages. The story says that a group of people who all speak the same language and are moving east come to the land of Shinar.
Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish artist and diplomat from the southern Netherlands. He was from the Duchy of Brabant. He is thought to have had the most impact on the Flemish Baroque style. Rubens’s works are full of strong emotions and clever references to classical and Christian history.
Jacob Peter Gowy – Jacob Peter Gouwy, or Jacob Peter Gouy, was a Flemish Baroque painter who made paintings of history and portraits. He worked with Peter Paul Rubens and lived in England for a while, where he painted portraits. As the person who painted a large picture of a horse in England, he is one of the first artists to paint portraits of horses.
Oscar Wilde – Irish poet and playwright Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in 1854. In the 1880s, he wrote in many different styles. In the early 1890s, he was one of London’s most popular playwrights.
Virginia Woolf – Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English author who is thought to be one of the most important modernist writers of the 20th century. She was also one of the first writers to use “stream of consciousness” as a way to tell a story.
hij ploegde voort – Dutch for he ploughed on
caida de Icaro – Spanish for fall of Icarus
Chute d’Icare – French for Fall of Icarus
Christina Currie and Dominique Allart, The Bruegel Phenomenon – Earlier suggestions that it had previously been transferred from wood have recently been discounted: Christina Currie and Dominique Allart, The Bruegel Phenomenon, 3 vols, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout (Belgium), 2012 at 846, 848.
Gallery Wrapped – A gallery wrapped canvas print is just a print where the canvas is stretched over a support frame (usually made of wood) and “wrapped” to keep it in place at the back. Gallery-wrapped canvas prints fold neatly to the sides, leaving you with a clean finish and a print that looks like it came from an art gallery.
Charles Le Brun – Charles Le Brun was a French painter, physiognomist, art theorist, and director of several art schools during his time.
Charles Dickens – English author and social critic Charles John Huffam Dickens was born in 1770. He made some of the most famous fictional characters in the world, and many people think he was the best novelist of the 1800s. During his lifetime, his works were more popular than ever, and by the 20th century, critics and scholars had come to see him as a literary genius.
Percy Bysshe Shelley – Percy Bysshe Shelley was a famous Romantic poet from England. Shelley was a radical in his poetry, as well as in his politics and social views. He didn’t become famous during his lifetime, but after he died, his poetry was recognized more and more, and poets like Robert Browning, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Thomas Hardy, and W. B. Yeats were all influenced by him.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, politician, theater director, and critic Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was also a statesman and a scientist. His writings include plays, poetry, prose, literary criticism, and books on botany, anatomy, and color.
Anthony van Dyck – Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Brabantian Flemish Baroque artist who became the most important court painter in England after doing well in the Southern Netherlands and Italy. Anthony was the seventh child of Frans van Dyck, a wealthy silk merchant from Antwerp. He started painting when he was very young.
David Foster Wallace – David Foster Wallace was an American who wrote novels, short stories, essays, and philosophical works. He also taught English and creative writing at a university. Wallace is known for his book Infinite Jest, which came out in 1996 and was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language books from 1923 to 2005.
Charles Paul Landon – Charles Paul Landon was a French painter and writer who wrote well-known books about art and artists.
Henri Matisse – Henri Émile Benoit Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who was known for his use of color and his unique way of drawing. He could draw, make prints, and make sculptures, but he is best known as a painter.
Oedipus Rex – Oedipus Rex, also called Oedipus Tyrannus or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC. It is also known by its Greek name, Oedipus Rex. At first, the ancient Greeks just called it “Oedipus,” which is how Aristotle refers to it in his book “Poetics.”
Orazio Riminaldi – Orazio Riminaldi was an Italian painter who used the Caravaggist style to paint mostly historical scenes.
Chinua Achebe – Nigerian novelist, poet, and critic Chinua Achebe is seen as the most important person in modern African literature. Things Fall Apart, his first book and magnum opus, is a key work in African literature and is still the most studied, translated, and read African novel.
Edward Hopper – Edward Hopper was a realist painter and printmaker from the United States. Even though he is best known for his oil paintings, he was also a skilled watercolorist and etching printmaker. Hopper made quiet drama out of everyday subjects that were “layered with a poetic meaning,” which made them open to story interpretations.
Don Quixote – Miguel de Cervantes wrote the Spanish epic book Don Quixote. It was first published in two parts, in 1605 and 1615. Its full name is The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha, or in Spanish, El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha.
John Steinbeck – John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. was an American writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1962 “for his realistic and imaginative writings, which combine sympathetic humor and keen social perception.” “A giant of American letters” is how people have described him. During his writing career, he wrote 33 books, including 16 novels, six nonfiction books, and two collections of short stories. He wrote one book with Edward Ricketts.
Ernest Hemingway – He was an American who wrote novels, short stories, and news articles. His spare style, which he called the “iceberg theory,” had a big impact on fiction in the 20th century, and his adventurous life and public image made people in later years admire him.
William Faulkner – William Cuthbert Faulkner was an American author best known for his novels and short stories set in the made-up county of Yoknapatawpha, which was based on the place where he lived for most of his life, Lafayette County, Mississippi. Faulkner won the Nobel Prize for literature and is one of the most famous American writers. He is also thought to be the best writer of Southern literature.
Jane Austen – Jane Austen was an English novelist who is best known for her six major books, which are about the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century and how they lived, thought, and loved. Austen’s stories often show how women need to get married to have a good social standing and financial security.
Alfred Prufrock – “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” also called “Prufrock,” is the first poem by T. S. Eliot, a British poet who was born in the United States. Eliot started writing “Prufrock” in February 1910, and Ezra Pound got it published for the first time in the June 1915 issue of Poetry: A Magazine of Verse.
Eugene O’Neill – Eugene Gladstone O’Neill was a playwright from the United States who won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Realistic drama techniques were first used by Anton Chekhov, Henrik Ibsen, and August Strindberg. Some of his plays had poetic titles.
Arthur Miller – American playwright, essayist, and screenwriter Arthur Asher Miller worked in the theater in the 20th century. All My Sons, Death of a Salesman, The Crucible, and A View from the Bridge are some of his most well-known plays. He wrote a number of scripts for movies, but The Misfits was the one that got him the most attention.
Scarlet Letter – Nathaniel Hawthorne, an American author, wrote The Scarlet Letter: A Romance in 1850. It is a work of historical fiction. Set in the Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1642 to 1649, the novel tells the story of Hester Prynne, who has a daughter with a man she is not married to and then struggles to start a new life of repentance and dignity.
Bridgeman Art Library – The Bridgeman Art Library has locations in London, Paris, New York, and Berlin. It has one of the world’s largest collections of copies of works of art.
Thomas Gray – Thomas Gray was an English poet, letter-writer, expert on classical literature, and professor at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Elegy, which he wrote, is well known. Published in 1751, it was written in a country churchyard. Gray was a writer who wrote about himself and was very popular, but he only published 13 poems in his lifetime.
Ben Jonson – Ben Jonson was an English poet and writer of plays. Jonson’s skill as an artist had a lasting effect on English poetry and comedy on stage. He popularised the comedy of humours; he is best known for the satirical plays Every Man in His Humour, Volpone, or The Fox, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fair and for his lyric and epigrammatic poetry.
Bernard Malamud – The American author Bernard Malamud wrote novels and short stories. He was one of the best-known American Jewish writers of the 20th century, along with Saul Bellow, Joseph Heller, and Philip Roth. The Natural, his book about baseball, was turned into a movie in 1984 starring Robert Redford. The Fixer, his 1966 book about antisemitism in the Russian Empire, won both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award.
John Updike – John Hoyer Updike was an American who wrote novels, poems, short stories, reviews of art and literature, and short stories. Updike is one of only four writers to have won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction more than once. During his career, he wrote more than twenty novels, more than a dozen collections of short stories, poetry, art and literary criticism, and books for children.
Hilda Doolittle – Hilda Doolittle was an American modernist who wrote poetry, novels, and memoirs under the name H.D. In 1911, she moved to London and, along with American poet and critic Ezra Pound, helped start a group of new poets called Imagists. This was the start of her career.
Alice Walker – Alice Malsenior Tallulah-Kate Walker is an American novelist, poet, and social activist who also writes short stories and novels. In 1982, her novel The Color Purple made her the first African-American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
Albert Camus – French philosopher, writer, playwright, and journalist Albert Camus was also a philosopher. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957, when he was 44 years old. This made him the second-youngest winner in history. The Stranger, The Plague, The Myth of Sisyphus, The Fall, and The Rebel are all books that he wrote.
Kunsthistorisches Museum – The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. It is in a building on Ringstraße that looks like a palace and is topped with an eight-sided dome. Both the museum itself and the main building are called the Kunsthistorisches Museum. Carnival and Lent – Pieter Bruegel the Elder painted The Fight Between Carnival and Lent in 1559. It shows how people live in the Southern Netherlands today.
Dutch Golden Age – The Dutch Golden Age was a time in Dutch history, roughly from 1588 to 1672, when Dutch trade, science, art, and the military were among the best in Europe. The Eighty Years’ War, which ended in 1648, is a big part of the first part.
Icarian Sea – Daedalus was upset about losing his wings, so he called the sea where he fell the Icarian Sea and the island close by Ikaria. The Icarian Sea is a part of the Mediterranean Sea that is between the Cyclades and Asia Minor. It is the part of the Aegean Sea that is south of Chios, east of the Eastern Cyclades, and west of Anatolia. Samos, Cos, Patmos, Leros, Fournoi Korseon, and Icaria are all part of it.
Plato – Plato was a Greek philosopher who was born in Classical Greece, in the city of Athens. He started the Platonist school of thought and the Academy, which was the first place of higher education in Europe.
Apollo – Apollo is one of the Olympian gods in the religions of ancient Greece and Rome and in their mythologies. Apollo was the Greeks’ national god. He was seen as the god of archery, music, dance, truth, prophecy, healing, diseases, the Sun, light, poetry, and more.
Iliad – Homer’s “The Iliad” is written on Knossian Linear B tablets, which is where Daedalus is first mentioned.
Zeus – Zeus is the ancient Greek god of the sky and thunder. He is also the king of the gods on Mount Olympus. He shares the first letter of his name with the Roman god Jupiter. His myths and powers are similar to those of Indo-European gods like Jupiter, Perknas, Perun, Indra, Dyaus, and Zojz, but they are not the same.
Randall Munroe – “I’ve never seen the Icarus story as a lesson about the limitations of humans. I see it as a lesson about the limitations of wax as an adhesive.” Randall Patrick Munroe is an American cartoonist, author, and engineer who is best known as the creator of the webcomic xkcd. Since late 2006, Munroe has worked full-time on the comic.
Icarus Syndrome – With its lack of humility (recklessness, Icarus’ recklessness), the Icarus syndrome is a pattern that every leader needs to watch out for. It has brought down many leaders who had big plans but failed horribly because they were too confident in their knowledge, foresight, and skills.
Icarus Deception – In his 2012 book The Icarus Deception, Seth Godin talks about how the Icarus myth has been told and interpreted in Western culture over time. He says, “We tend to forget that Icarus was also told not to fly too low because seawater would ruin the lift in his wings.” Even though it feels safer, flying too low is more dangerous than flying too high.
John Milton – Writes about power, disdain and ambition in Captain Ahab. English poet and thinker John Milton was born in 1608. His epic poem, Paradise Lost, was written in blank verse and has more than ten chapters. It was written in 1667, when there was a lot of change in religion and politics. It talked about how Adam and Eve were tempted by Satan, who had fallen from heaven, and how God kicked them out of the Garden of Eden.
Peter Beinart – use the Icarus term for Americans overconfidence. Peter Alexander Beinart is a journalist, columnist, and political commentator from the United States. He used to be the editor of The New Republic, and he has also written for Time, The New York Times, and The New York Review of Books, among other magazines.
Symbolism – The act of representing things with symbols or of giving things, events, or relationships symbolic meanings or significance.
Metaphor – A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that usually refers to one thing is used to refer to something else, implying a comparison between the two.
Athena – Some people say that Athena saw the boy falling and transformed him into a partridge. Athena or Athene, who is often called Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess who was later combined with the Roman goddess Minerva. She is associated with wisdom, war, and craftsmanship. Athena was seen as the protector and patron of many cities in Greece, especially Athens, which is probably where she got her name.
King Cocalus – Daedalus strikes up a friendship with ruler of the island King Cocalus. Diodorus Siculus says that in Greek mythology, Cocalus was king of the city of Kamikos in Sicily.
Merry-Joseph Blondel – Merry-Joseph Blondel was a French Neoclassical-style history painter. In 1803, he won the very important Prix de Rome. After the salon of 1824, Charles X of France made him a Knight in the Legion d’Honneur and gave him a job as a professor at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, where he stayed until his death in 1853.
High tower – Since King Minos controlled all of Crete’s ports and ships, Icarus and his father could not have left the island by ship. Because of this problem, Daedalus had to come up with a different way to get out. Since they were in a high tower, Daedalus thought of making them wings so they could fly to freedom.
Positive and negative shapes – If a dark shape is surrounded by a white (solid white shape) or lighter background white shape), it becomes a positive shape (different textures, or high contrast). As an anchor for the whole painting, our eyes always go back to a dark shape. In three dimensions, positive shapes are the ones that make up the actual work. The empty spaces around and sometimes even in the work itself are the negative shapes.
Shape’s orientation – A plane is any area in space with a flat surface (visually implied plane). In two-dimensional art (visually harmonious compositions), the picture plane is the flat surface where the image is made. This could be a sheet of paper, a piece of stretched canvas, or a piece of wood.
Baldwin, R. (1986). Peasant imagery and bruegel’s “fall of icarus”. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00233608608604112?journalCode=skon20
De Vries, L. (2003). Bruegel’s” Fall of Icarus”: Ovid or Solomon?. Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, 30(1/2), 5-18. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3780948
Cole, D. W. (2000). Williams’s LANDSCAPE WITH THE FALL OF ICARUS. The Explicator, 58(3), 151-151. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00144940009595968?journalCode=vexp20
Lindsay, K. C., & Huppé, B. (1956). Meaning and method in Brueghel’s painting. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 14(3), 376-386. https://www.jstor.org/stable/427055
Images Wikimedia Commons (val van Icarus) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landscape_with_the_Fall_of_Icarus